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In need of serious spiritual advice for dealing with delayed grief over a breakup.

2020.09.10 00:41 Redditforthe4thTime In need of serious spiritual advice for dealing with delayed grief over a breakup.

Some background (this is long. tl;dr toward the bottom):
I met a beautiful, good-natured Christian woman in January of 2017. It wasn't long before we decided we liked each other's company enough to become exclusive, and before you knew it, three years had passed.
In our three years together, we had a lot of ups and downs, some of which pertained to religious differences, but those started resolving themselves in the last year of our relationship. Some pertained to different geographical preferences—we were driving-distance LDR. She wanted to stay where she was because that was where her family was and she had great opportunities for career growth at her job. I wanted to stay where I was because I had similar support in place.
However, where the big problem was was that I always felt unsatisfied. And I dealt with this in horrible ways—by thinking up all the superficial ways in which we didn't belong together. I wanted a smarter woman, a woman with more interests, a woman without this quirk or that quirk, a woman with a family that was more open to me (there were many reservations expressed by them early because they were all staunchly protestant), a woman who could "this" and a woman who could "that", a "devoutly Catholic" woman, etc...
As a consequence, my "gaze" was always wandering and I was always daydreaming about other women. A decidedly unCatholic thing to do on my part. I never cheated on her with another person, but I cheated with my eyes and heart every day.
In the course of our three years together, we had two micro-breakups that lasted only a day or two each. I would be the one to break up with her, but then "come to my senses" about how all my dissatisfactions were routed in personal insecurities. Each time we got back together, I was dead set on appreciating her and what we had, and giving her my attention. And each time, I quickly retreated into myself and back into my daydreams
To be fair, I know we both were guilty of hurting the relationship at both points, and we both were guilty of unrealistic expectations at times that led to arguments and fights, but I can tell you that just as sure as the sky is blue, for as long as we were together, she loved me truly and completely, and she always wanted what was best for me. But I didn't want what was best for me.
Not only was I a daydreamer, I was still struggling with addiction to porn. And I was open with that. She tried to be supportive and understanding. She tried to help me and support me in other ways. When she genuinely made efforts to help me in other areas (such as eating healthier, making better health choices in general, etc...), I shut her down and out.
There were countless other smaller factors that were working against us and against my own mental and spiritual well-being that weren't rooted in the relationship, but instead rooted in my own personal life.
In December of last year, I told her I loved her, but that I wasn't in love with her. I didn't want to break up, but I wanted to be honest with where I was at. I know my feelings were the consequence of my own wandering and "grass is greener" mentality, but I couldn't pretend I was somewhere I wasn't. Soon after that, in January, I lost my job, and in the course of getting another one, I decided to finally pull the trigger on going back to college in my area. It wasn't a conscious choice to drive a deeper wedge between us, more just having a fire lit to do something for my future in light of where I was career-wise.
When I made that choice, it sealed the fate of our relationship. In February, she was the one to finally break up with me. And it was obvious why. Years of my distancing caused a huge breakdown in the relationship; my not being in love with her destroyed her hope of us staying together; and joining college in my area while she was climbing a job ladder in her area. It made sense, and I accepted it—or so I thought.
Only a month after breaking up, I felt like I had sufficiently moved on and started talking to women on dating sites. I learned a fast lesson, though: the women who ticked those magic boxes that I always thought I'd be happier having in a girlfriend weren't any more interesting than my ex-GF. These conversations and video dates with different women (homebound due to covid lockdowns) ultimately fell flat.
I did that for a month and half before deciding I was calling it quits for a little while while I figured out ways to improve my life. And I did, slowly. In the course of doing that, I realized in hindsight that a major component of my relationship issues were rooted in a fear of intimacy and commitment. But even then, I didn't look back with too much regret because I was trying to move forward.
When the end of May came around and the protests and riots started, I got back in touch with my ex. We had had small blurbs of conversation leading up to that to check in on each other's safety with covid (she has asthma, so I did worry about that), but with the riots and the social issues around which they revolved (she is afro-latina), we started talking a lot. We were on the same page about so many things, we seemed to be enjoying the conversations, and there was even one or two instances of flirting.
I tried not to think about those conversations as anything more than what they were, but we started following each other on social media again, and I could see how her life was changing and improving, and I was genuinely impressed by it. Not long after that, she asked me if we could meet up because she was going to be in my area with a friend. I took this as a friendly invitation, so I did.
And it was friendly. There was no conversation about what was or could've been—or could still be. Just friendly catching up. And the conversation flowed nicely. But when we parted, I found a feeling of missing her start to creep in. It started small, but grew with time. Not long after that get-together, I got a short message from her basically saying that while she appreciated the conversations we'd been having, she wanted to limit how much we communicated because she was starting to go on dates with someone and didn't want their to be anything awkward. And again, even though I was missing her a little, I respected it even if it hurt to feel like this new friendship was being taken away.
From there, we didn't talk much at all, but I kept missing her. And missing her turned into imagining all the ways it could work between us. I had begun improving my own life in ways I knew she'd appreciate, and as I said, I was working on dealing with fear of intimacy. I didn't think much about this other person she was going on dates with because it seemed like it was just starting out, and from the little bit that she did share, I didn't see it going anywhere.
Fast forward to Sunday night. In a bout of missing her, but not wanting to bother her because she seemed preoccupied when I messaged her a week prior to catch up, I visited one of her social media accounts to see how she was doing—which I know I shouldn't have done. And that's when I saw "It's the way he hugs me". I knew in that moment she was serious with someone, and even though it's already been 7 months since we ended our relationship, it sent my heart plummeting until it crashed and shattered into pieces. I immediately thought of how I didn't hug her enough toward the end because I was "trying to avoid falling into sin".
I wrote her a letter-style message to say it would be a while before I could feel comfortable being her friend in a social sense because I realized I still had feelings for her. That turned into me confessing basically everything I've felt and thought. Her responses, while loving, kind, patient, and reassuring of her care for me and our friendship, made it clear that she had a much more sober view on things and that those feelings did not linger for her (or if they did, she was mature enough not to acknowledge them)—nor should they, I suppose, if she's with another man.
I guess it just took me by surprise that she is already moving on 7 months after the end of a 3-year relationship, and I'm not ready to go that far with someone even if I was dating around. I don't even want to date. I don't want to go through that process of meeting new people. And yet, I feel like my next step in life is settling down.
Either way, I still broke over it in a big way, and in the past three days, I've been a total wreck. I've cried more times this week than I did when we broke up in February. I've thought about all the could've beens, and even though I know it's time to truly move on, I can't seem to shake her from my thoughts. I've been waking up in the night with my heart pounding because I meet her in my dreams. I work next to a day care and the sound of toddlers' laughter today made me sad knowing I would never know the sound of a toddler we made together.
I mean I am really overboard with this, and I don't know why it took me this long to feel this way, or even why I'm feeling this intensely about it. I'll feel like it's starting to pass and something else will trigger it. I was buying avocado at the store today, along with grapes as part of my newfound healthy eating, and I was reminded that she loved avocados and grapes, and it set off a bunch of emotions again. I've cried four times today. A couple smaller ones and big, fat ugly cry. I keep thinking about how the day I broke up with her the first time, the readings were about Genesis, God fashioning woman for man because he is not meant to be alone, how the wife would be like a fruit vine, and their children olive trees. It's why I went back the first time. I felt like it was God telling me to keep this one, but I couldn't stick with it.
TL;DR I'm only just grieving my breakup 7 whole months after it happened, despite seeming to be fine for the first 7 months. I know we broke up for important reasons, and I spent much of the relationship unsatisfied, but now I can't help wanting her back, but that won't happen because she's moved on and is with someone else. I need of advice for getting past this.
Long story short, my head is all over the place on this.
I know that was a long, long story, but I couldn't think of a way to condense it to give total context. I just need to know what I need to do next to deal with all these feelings. I'm emotional in ways I haven't been for most of my life. I've been talking to God through this, and it doesn't seem to relieve the pain. I just want to stop hurting, and I don't know how.
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2020.07.27 12:43 27JJulbarium Su-gar Da-ddy Da-ting We-bsites

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2020.07.27 11:53 27JJuldacket Da-ting Sit-es for Parents

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2020.05.04 00:00 pterodaktyl4 Nascar Drivers Anagrammed!

We're all stuck in a house, so I decided to make all the anagrams for the drivers. I used this site. There's probably better, but it's all in good fun.
The only rule is I can't use names that are already used or 1 letter difference with the exception of Quin Houff (Qu) and Jimmie Johnson. (Bell can't be Bell; Ray Black can't be Black Ray)
NASCAR CUP SERIES INSECURE CRAP ASS
Aric Almirola Racial Oil Arm
Christopher Bell Help Rich Lobster
Ryan Blaney Lean By Yarn
Alex Bowman A Blown Exam
Clint Bowyer Only Wet Crib
Chris Buescher Beers Is Church
Kyle Busch Shy Buckle
Kurt Busch Truck Hubs
William Byron My Ill Rainbow
Cole Custer Erect Locus
Matt DiBenedetto To Attend Bedtime
Austin Dillon Laid No Insult
Ty Dillon Tiny Doll
Chase Elliott Leach Toilets
Chad Finchum Ham Chic Fund
Joey Gase Go See Jay
Denny Hamlin My Linen Hand
Kevin Harvick Heck Viva Rink
Timmy Hill Hit My Mill
Quin Houff In Huff Quo
Jimmie Johnson Johns Join Mime
Erik Jones Noise Jerk
Matt Kenseth The Mask Tent
Brad Keselowski Broke Sidewalks
Corey LaJoie A Recoil Joey
Joey Logano Enjoy A Logo
Michael McDowell Call Him Welcomed
John Hunter Nemechek He Nut Joker Henchmen
Ryan Newman Yawn Manner
Brennan Poole Enable No Porn
Ryan Preece Near Creepy
Tyler Reddick Tickled Dryer
Ricky Stenhouse Jr. Here Run Joysticks
Daniel Suarez A Land Seizure
Martin Truex Jr. Jinx Turret Ram
Bubba Wallace A Wall Cub Babe
JJ Yeley N/A


XFINITY SERIES EXIT FIERY SINS
Anthony Alfredo Nylon Afro Death
Justin Allgaier Tag All Injuries
Michael Annett Machine Talent
Ray Black Jr Balk Cry Jar
Chase Briscoe Aerobic Chess
Brandon Brown Down Born Barn
Harrison Burton Iron Nut Harbors
Ross Chastain An Ostrich Ass
Austin Cindric Rustic Inn Acid
Jeremy Clements Eject Sly Mermen
Joe Graf Jr. Jog Ref Jar
Noah Gragson Go On Hangars
Kaz Grala A Zag Lark
Justin Haley He Insult Jay
Mike Harmon A Honk Mimer
Riley Herbst She Terribly
Brandon Jones No Nerd Banjos
Justin Little Still See Jet
Tommy Joe Martins Majority Moments
Vinnie Miller In Evil Merlin
Matt Mills N/A
Ryan Sieg A Syringe
Myatt Snider Army Dentist
David Starr N/A
Josh Williams I Show Ill Jams


GANDER RV & OUTDOORS TRUCK SERIES OUR GROSS SIDETRACKED TURNOVER
Jordan Anderson Darn Jean Donors
Tyler Ankrum Murky Rental
Spencer Boyd Creepy Bonds
Jennifer Jo Cobb Nice Job Fern Job
Matt Crafton Not Tram Fact
Sheldon Creed Chord Needles
Christian Eckes I Race Thickness
Grant Enfinger Regret Fanning
Tate Fogleman Got Tan Female
Stewart Friesen SWAT Interferes
Todd Gilliland Lid Doll Dating
Tanner Gray Rate Granny
Austin Hill Hail Insult
Derek Kraus Us Reek Dark
Raphael Lessard A Helpless Radar
Ty Majeski Aim Jet Sky
Brett Moffitt N/A
Ben Rhodes Herbs Done
Angela Ruch Launch Gear
Johnny Sauter No Jay Hunters
Zane Smith Mazes Hint
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2020.04.30 11:29 thecambridgegeek Audio Drama/Fiction/RPG Debuts - April 2020

I've got what I think is a mostly exhaustive list of the new audio series that came out this month, which may be of interest to those looking for new shows. See below. Anyone want to tell me any I've missed, and I'll update it? (Note, "new" here means that the Ep1 of the RSS feed was released, or a previously non-fiction feed started producing fiction.) Listened to any of them that you would recommend?
4/1: Quarantine Quest (RPG - Fantasy)
Site: https://twitter.com/southwellstylez
Synopsis: Hi. I'm Cameron Southwell. I am not a real person. This is not a real podcast. Quarantine Quest tells the story of a world on lock-down, where tiny isolated communities have been encapsulated in their own pockets of reality causing them to diverge from what was once recognized as reality, and of the overseers who try in vain to keep this system intact despite its inevitable failure. Quarantine Quest also tells my story, as the author, as I try to put this together and reach out from the isolation of disability and social anxiety to share what I've been working on. Think of this as spoken word concept album trying to both tell a story and make a point. There are two kinds of episodes: A Sides to cover the main body of work and B Sides. A Sides are longer episodes of about an hour, released monthly, in which I tell a story about the world of Quarantine Quest. Usually they will be created using a game or specific writing technique. The episodes will function as individual songs or stories that weave together to create the larger fabric of the plot and themes of the world of Quarantine Quest. They will also often function as actual plays or demonstrations of whatever game or technique I am using. B Sides are shorter episodes, released haphazardly, usually 10-15 minutes long and represent divergence from the narrative. Some will be readings from across the universe, some will be thoughts from my tiny hidey hole, some will be commentary or discussion of the ongoing narrative. If I get questions, these will also be Q&As eventually. They will also probably discuss writing and coping in isolation. I'm Cameron Southwell. I'm not a real person. This is not a real podcast. Thank you for listening.
RSS Feed: https://pinecast.com/feed/quarantine-quest

4/1: Roll Charisma (RPG - Urban fantasy)
Site: https://roll-charisma.simplecast.com/
Synopsis: A fun actual play storytelling podcast for shameless nerds. Our current campaign, Moonlighters, is about fixers for hire in New York's secret supernatural community. Think a mash-up of shows like Stranger Things, The Wire, and Broad City, and you'll have a pretty good idea of what to expect from us.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.simplecast.com/NcTmCsic

4/1: Strnge Trns.mssns from the Retrofuture (Dramatised - Science fiction)
Site: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/953683.rss
Synopsis: Strnge Trns.mssns from the Retrofuture is a linear fictional audio drama formed in style by a love of the radio dramas of old. With a combination of 'found footage' and narration, it catalogues an adventure that begins in the year 2117, and expounds upon the integrated backstory of our business, Antimtr.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/953683.rss

4/1: The Anansi Chronicles (Fiction - Fantasy)
Site: http://www.buzzsprout.com/975358
Synopsis: Narrated by History itself, the Anansi Chronicles tells the forgotten stories of the supernatural creatures brought to the ‘New World’ as a result of the awful slave trade. It is an Afro-centric fantastical history.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/975358.rss

4/2: Ignore City (Dramatised - Musical)
Site: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLhdLAJVe\_bs5-Shz\_U4Gn63s7aMgCQMW5
Synopsis: Ignore City' is an audio drama rock musical with original songs by The Shake Ups! In a post-apocalyptic future where technology has been outlawed, Deban Rimpa, a scrappy bike messenger, befriends a sentient robot head named Saner 0805. She embarks on an intrepid adventure through Ignore City to save civilization before government agents catch up with her.

4/2: Malice Corp (RPG - Fantasy)
Site: http://malice-corp.com/
Synopsis: Some of your Malice Cast favorites and some new friends come together to play some of your favorite table top RPGs. Series 1 - The DeVecna Code.
RSS Feed: http://malice-corp.com/feed/malice_corp_actual_play/

4/2: Neurominded Presents (Dramatised - Science fiction)
Site: https://neuromindedpresents.podbean.com
Synopsis: A cosmic anthology of series and one offs.
RSS Feed: https://feed.podbean.com/neuromindedpresents/feed.xml

4/2: The Odyssey (Dramatised - Adaptation)
Site: https://www.weplayers.org/odyssey-audio-drama
Synopsis: Welcome aboard The Odyssey Audio Drama! We Players originally performed The Odyssey in late 2011, voyaging with our audiences in the waters of San Francisco Bay aboard the historic scow schooner Alma. We sailed past the sirens, we anchored off Angel Island, we feasted on cheese and olives and bread aboard the ship, we sang sea chanteys, and we awakened the muse of these ancient tales! Here on our virtual ocean, imagine that salt spray and sea breeze, the splash of the waves against the wooden hull and the creaks and groans of the rigging. The voyage begins again.
RSS Feed: http://www.weplayers.org/odyssey-audio-drama-episodes?format=rss

4/3: The Mistholme Museum of Mystery, Morbidity, and Mortality (Dramatised - Urban fantasy)
Site: https://thatsnotcanon.com/themistholmemuseumpodcast/
Synopsis: Hello, and welcome to the Mistholme Museum of Mystery, Morbidity, and Mortality. This Audio Tour Guide is aware that this is your first visit to the museum! On behalf of the Museum: Welcome! It’s a pleasure to have you with us here today. The Audio Tour Guide will be your window into the history of the museum and its exhibits today. If you would like an introduction to how the museum works, please continue breathing normally. Fantastic!
RSS Feed: https://thatsnotcanon.com/themistholmemuseumpodcast?format=rss

4/4: Earth Under Gold (Dramatised - Science fiction)
Site: http://earthundergold.com/
Synopsis: A sci-fi audio drama brewed for the end times, Earth under Gold follows several unlucky humans through the final days of the Golden occupation. In 2033, the Golden -- an alien force composed of six gargantuan birdlike beings -- descended from the heavens and promptly decimated our species. After the slaughter, the Golden corralled the survivors into sprawling refugee camps. Flash forward fifty years -- those camps are now thriving city-states, the leaders of which are eager to assert dominance in a newly opened world. As the Golden begin their exodus, the human race ambles toward a familiar crossroads. Can it find a new way? Will our species free itself from its torturous patterns?
RSS Feed: https://earthundergold.libsyn.com/rss

4/4: McKinney Can't Write (Fiction - Anthology)
Site: https://anchor.fm/mckinneycantwrite/
Synopsis: So just what is McKinney Can't Write? It's a mess, to be honest, but a fun one. It's a place where you can find science fiction audio dramas one week or urban fantasy serials the next. It's a place to dip a toe, or dunk a head, into strange tales. More than anything, it's a place to take a break from reality. Not forever, but a little, at least. So why not hit play and check out what McKinney Can't Write has to offer.
RSS Feed: https://anchor.fm/s/1b74ab74/podcast/rss

4/4: Through These Eyes (Fiction - Anthology)
Site: https://audioboom.com/channels/5020037
Synopsis: Through These Eyes is a monthly, bite-sized audio drama featuring various short-story fiction. From thrillers to horror to everything in-between, we aim to make your drive home just a little bit better.
RSS Feed: https://audioboom.com/channels/5020037.rss

4/5: Ben and Sophie: Woby's Secret (Dramatised - Children)
Site: https://www.spokenmovieproject.com/
Synopsis: "Ben and Sophie - Woby's Secret" is the story of two third-graders skilled at investigating all the secrets their world holds.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.captivate.fm/spokenmovieproject-benandsophie/

4/5: Margaret Moves to Mars (Dramatised - Comedy)
Site: https://play.acast.com/s/margaret-moves-to-mars
Synopsis: A fictional sci-fi/comedy about a girl named Margaret, who after a bad break-up moves to the Australian colony on Mars hoping for a fresh start. Upon arrival she quickly realises that Mars isn’t all it’s cracked up to be. The air’s a bit thin, the water’s a bit dry and the only food is potato. But with no desire to head home, Margaret makes the most of a bad situation gaining a job as the Chief Advisor for the highly inept Mayor of Mars.
RSS Feed: https://rss.acast.com/margaret-moves-to-mars

4/5: Omegaman (Dramatised - Superhero)
Site: https://omegamanpodcast.com/
Synopsis: Omegaman is set in an alternate reality of the United States where in 2008, a real life superhero appeared: Omegaman. The story begins in 2019 centered on a reporter visiting a prison specially designed to house supervillains. Her assignment? To interview some of the more prominent villains (some super powered and some not) about their first encounters with Omegaman, in search of uncovering a secret conspiracy.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.captivate.fm/omegaman/

4/5: Sick and Twisted Stories - Dark Tales from the 21st Century (Fiction - Horror)
Site: https://anchor.fm/james-m2
Synopsis: Drawing inspiration from the Twilight Zone and Black Mirror, Sick and Twisted Stories offers a series of dark, disturbing, and tragic tales about the darker side of life in the 21st Century.
RSS Feed: https://anchor.fm/s/166e7718/podcast/rss

4/5: StoneKeep (Dramatised - Thriller)
Site: https://stonekeeppodcast.podbean.com
Synopsis: When Caleb accompanies his father to work at the CDC, he thinks his dad has a pretty boring job. But when the alarm goes off and the facility goes into lock down, he learns that first impressions can be deceiving.
RSS Feed: https://feed.podbean.com/stonekeeppodcast/feed.xml

4/5: The Ponith Series (Fiction - Fantasy)
Site: https://theponithseries.buzzsprout.com/892135
Synopsis: The Ponith Series Podcast - A YA Fantasy storytelling novel series. Follow along with the story series that has portals, magic, fantasy creatures, fighting, love, and much more.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/892135.rss

4/5: Wombwell Thespians (Dramatised - Slice of life)
Site: https://anchor.fm/wombwell-thespians/
Synopsis: Amongst other things this will contain radio play style audio performances produced by members of the Wombwell Thespians Amateur Dramatics Society.
RSS Feed: https://anchor.fm/s/1a870b6c/podcast/rss

4/6: A Place Called Fairneck (Dramatised - Comedy)
Site: https://www.fairneckpodcast.com/
Synopsis: A clever teenage journalist comically recounts the events that lead to a beloved member of her community tragically dying in a freak, plague-related accident the week before Passover. Think Sliding Doors in a modern orthodox North Jersey community.
RSS Feed: https://aplacecalledfairneck.libsyn.com/aplacecalledfairneck

4/6: Conversations (Dramatised - Slice of life)
Site: https://www.facebook.com/OJ-Scriptwriting-106185034262166/
Synopsis: Several groups of people having dinner discuss their issues and wonders. They are unaware of how their conversations affect those around them.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/912418.rss

4/6: I Want Everything (Dramatised - Comedy)
Site: http://www.buzzsprout.com/963307
Synopsis: I Want Everything is a six-part, full cast dramatisation comedy drama by Tom Manly. Two young strangers appear in a dimensionless void. They learn from their unwilling and flatulent guide that they have been summoned to undertake The Bidding. The Bidding is a difficult, no, nearly impossible task. The most likely outcome for the summoned is death ... but completing The Bidding is their only way home. What is the curious purpose of these quests? Who are the mysterious Stewards who oversee the process? What ancient prophesies drive a conflict that threatens to engulf our heroes and the vast Hachne Empire? What happens when a Giant meets a social influencer and why does everyone dream that someone else has taken their spoon!?
RSS Feed: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/963307.rss

4/6: JWF: Monday Night Ignition (Dramatised - Comedy)
Site: https://jwfignition.captivate.fm/
Synopsis: JWF: Monday Night Ignition is the only place where you can see the storylines and storylines of Birmingham, Alabama's premier wrestling organization, the JWF! Founded by Captain Tibbs in 19??, the JWF features some of the greatest stars of tomorrow, but today! From the Hammer Man to The Lumberjack, JWF features some of the hottest talent that the Yellowhammer State has to offer!
RSS Feed: https://feeds.captivate.fm/jwfignition/

4/6: Light Hearts (Dramatised - Comedy)
Site: https://lightheartspod.carrd.co/
Synopsis: Running a business is hard. Running a business alone in an old, haunted building is even harder. Janine didn’t know what she was getting herself into when she opened Prism - but with the help of Ryan (an astronomy professor with a useful knack) and Kale (an artist with a mind for marketing), she manages to stay aloft. Light Hearts follows the daily shenanigans of serving Prism’s customers, solving strange problems, and wrangling the occasional unexpected patron.
RSS Feed: https://pinecast.com/feed/light-hearts

4/6: Pete's Paranormal Universe (Dramatised - Comedy)
Site: http://www.ckmombourquette.com/ppu/
Synopsis: Stranded in the distant world of tomorrow, Pete Schwartz struggles on, exploring the convoluted secrets of…PETE’S PARANORMAL UNIVERSE - where the paranormal is normal.
RSS Feed: http://ckmombourquette.squarespace.com/ppu?format=rss

4/6: What Comes After (RPG - Post-apocalypse)
Site: https://anchor.fm/whatcomesafter
Synopsis: The world as we know it ended in the mid 1980s, when billions of people died at once. 5 years later, 4 survivors discover that everything is about to change again. A Genesys RPG Actual Play Podcast.
RSS Feed: https://anchor.fm/s/13d35014/podcast/rss

4/7: Almost Heroes (RPG - Fantasy)
Site: https://www.dungeonsco.com/podcast/
Synopsis: A “mostly” 5th Edition D&D Story.
RSS Feed: https://www.dungeonsco.com/podcast?format=rss

4/7: Bleach (Dramatised - Thriller)
Site: https://www.danirelandreeves.co.uk/bleachpodplay
Synopsis: Adapted from the award-winning stage play; Bleach is a story of sex, violence and city-living. Tyler Everett sells his body to hungry punters on a nightly basis. But on a regular working night, things are about to spiral out of control leaving Tyler questioning whether living in London is really worth the price of rent.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/991045.rss

4/7: Covid39 (Dramatised - Science fiction)
Site: https://thesevensages.com/covid39
Synopsis: Twenty years after Covid-19 brought the world to a standstill, a man and a woman who were quarantined together as kids question the validity of their current romantic relationship. They salvage audio recordings left by their parents during the pandemic, our present, to come to terms with their trauma. This is a fictional audio drama that points out the humanity of our fateful present and examines the future we are helping to create for our children.
RSS Feed: http://thesevensages.com/covid39?format=rss

4/7: Null/Void (Dramatised - Science fiction)
Site: https://pocpodcasting.wixsite.com/pocpn/nullvoid
Synopsis: Null/Void is a science fiction audio drama about a young woman, Piper Lee, whose life is saved by a mysterious voice named Adelaide. Piper soon uncovers a malicious plot by a monopoly of a tech company and must work with her friends and an unusual ally to help foil their deadly plot.
RSS Feed: https://pinecast.com/feed/null-void

4/7: October by May (Fiction - Anthology)
Site: https://octoberbymay.podbean.com/
Synopsis: October by May is a narrative fiction podcast that envelops you in a three-dimensional soundscape of ominous occurrences and eerie tales, transporting you to that most unearthly time of year.
RSS Feed: https://feed.podbean.com/octoberbymay/feed.xml

4/8: Desperado (Dramatised - Urban fantasy)
Site: https://www.buzzsprout.com/963982
Synopsis: Blood magic, Voodoo magic, old gods, new gods: We've got it all! Follow the story of misfits from all over the world, as they try to survive and protect their heritage from modern-day crusaders.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/963982.rss

4/8: Merchant of Death (Dramatised - Historical)
Site: https://anchor.fm/joshua-belmonte
Synopsis: A WW2 veteran returns home and finds no employment opportunities. During a chance encounter, he is given an opportunity and becomes a hitman for a Kansas City crime family.
RSS Feed: https://anchor.fm/s/1c1882d0/podcast/rss

4/8: Neural Nexus: Zero (RPG - Cyberpunk)
Site: https://howinerd.com/category/neural-nexus-zero/
Synopsis: Boston 1980, A neon metropolis that stands in stark contrast to the harshness of life within the hub. Maybe not as hard as it is for the low-techs who survive outside the graces of the cities protection but living in this city brings with it its own set of challenges. Unemployment, lack of education, corrupt police, organized and street crime as well as the overall Orwellian feel of systems put in place to keep the average citizen from advancing in life. Come along with our misfits as they struggle through the day to day of modern life in this gritty nightmare.
RSS Feed: http://neuralnexuszero.libsyn.com/rss

4/9: PRøDUCTS & PLäCEMENTS (RPG - Fantasy)
Site: http://soundcloud.com/ninjahell-0451/sets/products-plaecements-an
Synopsis: PRøDUCTS & PLäCEMENTS is an official, Melsonian Arts Counsel approved, Troika Actual Play podcast dedicated to showcasing and promoting the 3rd party content that makes this game great! Join the former 90s college students turned fantasy adventurers as they participate in this tongue-and-cheek ploy to showcase and promote as many third-party Troika! creators and their content as possible, to inspire you to check out the game, buy some content, and get rollin' those dice!
RSS Feed: http://feeds.soundcloud.com/playlists/soundcloud:playlists:1029190186/sounds.rss

4/9: Soundstage (Dramatised - Anthology)
Site: https://www.playwrightshorizons.org/soundstage/
Synopsis: Soundstage is an anthological, scripted fiction series of portable stories from Playwrights Horizons theater in New York City. Featuring short-form commissions from America’s best playwrights, these audio experiences are written specifically for the ear, not translated or recorded live from the stage. Now, the theater is wherever you are.
RSS Feed: https://www.spreaker.com/show/4269006/episodes/feed

4/9: WonderCop (Dramatised - Comedy)
Site: https://soundcloud.com/user-958306016
Synopsis: WonderCop is a semi-scripted podcast created by comedians Matt Klinman (The Onion, Smartr), Zack Poitras (The Tonight Show) and Dan Abramson (The Last Degree Of Kevin Bacon). It follows alcoholic Detective Daryl Dern and his new robotic partner WonderCop as they try to keep the town of Gristleberg, USA safe from crime.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.soundcloud.com/users/soundcloud:users:806852179/sounds.rss

4/10: Façade (RPG - Urban fantasy)
Site: https://www.tablestory.tv/series/facade/
Synopsis: We are surrounded by the faceless masses. If we ever stopped to look, we might notice the cracks in our existence. Will you see through the Facade? Join our cast of roleplayers in the setting of KULT: Divinity Lost for an 18+, occult detective tabletop roleplaying game show.
RSS Feed: https://www.tablestory.tv/series/facade/feed/

4/10: Friends Through the Letterbox (Dramatised - Comedy)
Site: https://www.spreaker.com/show/friends-through-the-letterbox\_1
Synopsis: Dan Jones and Craven Windlescrape discuss a strange portal that's connecting Dan's letterbox to a whole new world of mystery.
RSS Feed: https://www.spreaker.com/show/4078407/episodes/feed

4/10: Last Call at Bluebell Cafe (Dramatised - Fantasy)
Site: https://lastcallatbluebellcafe.podbean.com/
Synopsis: Last Call at Bluebell Cafe is a fantasy audio drama about a shapeshifting Barista who is a little too interested in other people's lives. The Barista runs the transient Bluebell Cafe, where customers can get more than just coffee. Many of the wanderers who find themselves stumbling upon this hidden cafe in dusky hours are at a crossroads in their life. Who better than our Barista to guide them along their path? With a little help from magic, of course.However, magic and people are both unpredictable; there's a reason why they don't mix, as the Barista will soon discover.
RSS Feed: https://feed.podbean.com/lastcallatbluebellcafe/feed.xml

4/10: The Ernie Pyle Experiment! (Dramatised - Comedy)
Site: https://indianapublicmedia.org/erniepylepodcast/
Synopsis: A thirteen-episode podcast from WFIU Public Radio chronicling Ernie Pyle's pre-war work as a travelling columnist for the Scripps-Howard Newspaper syndicate.
RSS Feed: https://indianapublicmedia.org/erniepylepodcast/feed.xml.php

4/10: The Fowler Family Radio Hour (Dramatised - Comedy)
Site: https://www.facebook.com/thefowlerfamilyradiohou
Synopsis: "The Fowler Family Radio Hour" features down-home songs and commercials, the latest episode of the soap opera "Holly Springs Eternal," and plenty of local color from the fictional southern town of Henley.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.transistor.fm/the-fowler-family-radio-hour

4/10: The Mirage Barrage (Fiction - Superhero)
Site: https://www.buzzsprout.com/980926
Synopsis: In the Mirage Universe, a great being from another dimension sleeps within the core of the Earth. So powerful is he that even his dreams can grant individuals extraordinary powers- super powers! Tales of superheroes, supervillains, secret agents, inter-dimensional travelers and a myriad of other characters will unfurl in this- the Mirage Barrage! Expect excitement, intrigue, action, mystery and more! No tale is too big or too small for the Mirage Universe!
RSS Feed: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/980926.rss

4/11: Are You Sitting Comfortably? (Fiction - Horror)
Site: https://www.buzzsprout.com/1000771
Synopsis: If you like horror stories, you'll want to listen to mine... I'll be reading out the short stories I've written, as well as chapters of my novels. I hope you like them!
RSS Feed: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/1000771.rss

4/11: Roads Uncharted (RPG - Fantasy)
Site: https://roads-uncharted.simplecast.com/
Synopsis: Roads Uncharted is an actual play podcast using the Genesys RPG system, set in a homebrew fantasy world. The story takes place shortly after thousands of children suddenly went missing on the eve of a festival. Join the players and GM Dax as they try to solve this mystery and find their place in a world where gods meddle in the lives of mortals.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.simplecast.com/FVjUsTA8

4/12: Sincerely, B (Fiction - Crime/Mystery)
Site: http://sincerelyb.libsyn.com/
Synopsis: I've discovered odd letters addressed to my house. They tell a story of someone I know only as "B." B has, apparently, started a new life, buying a home with the intent to renovate. But things are odd in B's new town. And maybe a bit dangerous too.
RSS Feed: http://sincerelyb.libsyn.com/rss

4/13: Dice Therapy (RPG - Fantasy)
Site: https://dicetherapyap.pinecast.co/
Synopsis: Your inoculation against the mundane via Actual Play recordings of Tabletop RPG sessions.
RSS Feed: https://pinecast.com/feed/dicetherapyap

4/13: Liquid Picnic Audio Dramas (Dramatised - Anthology)
Site: https://soundcloud.com/user-818973058
Synopsis: Podcast by Liquid Picnic Production.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.soundcloud.com/users/soundcloud:users:779196667/sounds.rss

4/13: Lottie's Diary (Fiction - Historical)
Site: https://anchor.fm/lottie-fisher
Synopsis: Lottie’s 1930 diary showed up years ago in a jumble sale in the south of England. Written in a Collins’ Royal Diary, it’s the story of a young woman from North London. A story of English privilege between the wars. Each episode brings another month from Lottie's 1930 life. Some things are familiar; at other time she inhabits another world.
RSS Feed: https://anchor.fm/s/1cbb6fcc/podcast/rss

4/13: Tales of Zendaria (Fiction - Fantasy)
Site: https://anchor.fm/talesofzendaria
Synopsis: Tales of Zendaria is a Young Adult fantasy-fiction audiobook, which chronicles the adventures of reluctant Princess April and her canine companion Willow through the ancient Kingdom of Zendaria. Magic, mystery and mirth await! Written and narrated by Alexander Worth.
RSS Feed: https://anchor.fm/s/1c328504/podcast/rss

4/13: The Time Pirate (Dramatised - Fantasy)
Site: https://beta.prx.org/series/39124
Synopsis: James Hawkins helps his mom run a motel in modern day Montauk, Long Island. But when a mysterious man washes up on the beach with a treasure map tattooed on his chest, James discovers that Billy Bones is, in fact, a time traveling pirate from the 18th century. James and his new friends, Morgan and Max, follow the map right into a magical portal that leads them back nearly three hundred years and back into a swashbuckling adventure.
RSS Feed: http://feeds.bestrobotever.com/TheTimePirate

4/13: Today's Life (Dramatised - Slice of life)
Site: https://today-s-life.pinecast.co
Synopsis: A episodic serial that tells the story of a couple dealing with the troubles of Today's Life.
RSS Feed: https://pinecast.com/feed/today-s-life

4/14: Academy Days: Christian Fiction for Teen Girls (Fiction - Slice of life)
Site: http://www.buzzsprout.com/795173
Synopsis: Academy Days is a fiction serial podcast for teenage girls. The Christian high school story follows four girls as they navigate school, family, friends, and the choices that each day brings. Carmen, London, Ebony, and Lacey differ in personality, but life in a small Christian school brings them together as each one grows closer to God.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/795173.rss

4/14: God of Obsidian (Dramatised - Thriller)
Site: https://god-of-obsidian.simplecast.com/
Synopsis: God Of Obsidian is a dark fairytale about a gaslighting relationship, as one woman desperately seeks the story that will take her back across the narrow, dangerous bridge to freedom.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.simplecast.com/1Bpis_CB

4/14: Heroics (Dramatised - Superhero)
Site: https://www.planetm.io/heroics/
Synopsis: When their comic-shop-as-a-front beings to struggle, a group of superheroes experiment with different career paths a little more... villainous than heroic. A new audiodrama from Justin McLachlan and PlanetM.
RSS Feed: http://feeds.backtracks.fm/feeds/planetm/heroics/feed.xml?1586972899

4/14: Moon Harbor Extended (RPG - Science fiction)
Site: https://www.icynewyear.com/moon-harbor-extended/
Synopsis: Moon Harbor Heroes and the Icynewyear Presents Network are proud to present Moon Harbor Extended, a continuation of the Masks: A New Generation Actual Play Moon Harbor Heroes. Moon Harbor Extended tells the stories of characters outside of Faces and Cataclysm Crew and takes us from the center of the earth to the far depths of space. There are two primary lines in this extended universe comic series. The first is a cosmic line focusing on a SABRE-sponsored space-exploration unit as they try to save the world from utter destruction, GMed by Anthony Sheets. The second is an unnamed earthbound team of all queer characters, played by all LGBTQIA+ players, who navigate Moon Harbor’s more underground secrets, including the renaissance-themed society of rat people living in the sewers.
RSS Feed: https://www.icynewyear.com/moon-harbor-extended?format=rss

4/14: Next Stop (Dramatised - Comedy)
Site: https://www.nextstopshow.com/
Synopsis: Your friends are moving on. You're figuring out how to move forward. NEXT STOP is an audio sitcom about your mid-to-late 20s when everyone is changing around you—and you worry that you might not catch up. When longtime roommates Cam and Ally search for someone to replace their newly engaged former roommate, they stumble upon the iconoclast and ridiculous Samuel Clemens. Across its ten-episode first season, NEXT STOP follows these roommates’ trials through work, relationships, friendships and more.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.megaphone.fm/nextstop

4/14: Rage of Nerds (RPG - Fantasy)
Site: https://rageofnerds.podbean.com
Synopsis: Captured by the Drow and trapped in the Underdark, how will this crew of adventurer's find their way back to the surface world? Tune in to find out!
RSS Feed: https://feed.podbean.com/rageofnerds/feed.xml

4/14: Tales from the Aether (Dramatised - Fantasy)
Site: https://anchor.fm/talesfromtheaether
Synopsis: Original fairy tales for the modern day world. Tales From The Aether is an anthology series written by 3x award-winning writer, Jackie Jorgenson, which tells a different three part story each season.
RSS Feed: https://anchor.fm/s/b4908f8/podcast/rss

4/14: The Nonbinary Carrie Bradshaw (Dramatised - Slice of life)
Site: https://www.joshuabyron.com/
Synopsis: The Nonbinary Carrie Bradshaw is a fiction podcast about four queer and trans friends dating, crying, and waiting for the subway in New York City.
RSS Feed: https://anchor.fm/s/157b0dd0/podcast/rss

4/14: The Villes (Fiction - Children)
Site: http://www.thevilles.com/podcast-2/
Synopsis: The Villes - A series of whimsical illustrated children's stories aimed at 6 to 10 year olds, written by BBC TV Property expert Martin Roberts from Homes under the Hammer. From Tiredsville and Windyville, to Coldsville and Boredsville, the Magical bus takes Herman and the reader on a journey of fun and intrigue.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/1011739.rss

4/15: Adelyne's Apothecary (Fiction - Historical)
Site: https://www.adelynesapothecary.com/
Synopsis: Adelyne’s Apothecary is a fiction podcast exploring the world of folk herbalist Adelyne Hutcheson. Adelyne’s storytelling takes us deep into the hills of Northern Appalachia where we meet her eccentric neighbors, family, and dearest plant friends.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.transistor.fm/adelynes-apothecary

4/15: Dusk and Dawn (RPG - Fantasy)
Site: http://www.buzzsprout.com/1014709
Synopsis: A Real Play Dnd Podcast following the adventures of Marek, Cinthia, Duna, and Mari as they fight to discover what's really happening in the Whiskey Republic.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.buzzsprout.com/1014709.rss

4/15: Joao Nsita (Fiction - Slice of life)
Site: https://anchor.fm/joao-nsita
Synopsis: This is the Joao Nsita podcast, a podcast channel dedicated to exploring the delightfully strange worlds of love through drama and comedy.
RSS Feed: https://anchor.fm/s/e6f030c/podcast/rss

4/15: MILKTEA (Fiction - Science fiction)
Site: https://www.snakble.com/podcast
Synopsis: Nate is a clone without any memories of his previous life. “The Key” is the queen of an ice planet he’s just crash landed on. “Father” is his robot, the only parent Nate has ever known. Traverse a 1000 years to uncover the mystery of who Nate and the Key are and what they mean to each other.
RSS Feed: https://feeds.captivate.fm/milktea/

4/15: North Star Rising (Fiction - Science fiction)
Site: https://www.northstarcrew.com/
Synopsis: Two humans find themselves on a space adventure in this six part audiobook, from the writer of Thomas Was Alone and Subsurface Circular.
RSS Feed: https://northstarcrew.libsyn.com/rss

4/15: Reroll Expectations (RPG - Fantasy)
Site: https://twitter.com/RerollCast
Synopsis: A Real-Play Dungeons and Dragons Podcast featuring Cayce McWilliams, WIll Truax, Anthony Carluccio, and Jeff Nabors as your local benevolent Dungeon Master. We are currently in a homebrewed world called Sirine, a high-fantasy world of political intrigue and bizarre, powerful magic.
RSS Feed: https://rerollexpectations.libsyn.com/rss

4/15: Tale of the Manticore (RPG - Fantasy)
Site: https://taleofthemanticore.podbean.com
Synopsis: Tale of the Manticore is a hybrid between a dark fantasy audio drama and a solo D&D RPG. The dice make all the important decisions and, as a writer, my job is to interpret them and tell their story. Part fiction, part game, it's the story where "Chaos rolls."
RSS Feed: https://feed.podbean.com/taleofthemanticore/feed.xml

4/15: The New Colossus (Dramatised - Adaptation)
Site: https://www.thenewcolossuspodcast.com/
Synopsis: A family of frustrated, attention-starved artists flocks to the seashore. One of them has a gun...what could possibly go wrong? A darkly comic reboot of Chekhov’s classic THE SEAGULL, this rollicking tale examines the pitfalls of making art and making love in modern day America.
RSS Feed: https://www.thenewcolossuspodcast.com/feed/podcast/

4/15: War of the Words (Dramatised - Anthology)
Site: https://www.conemanrunning.com/
Synopsis: Cone Man Running Productions is excited to present the next level of audioplay competition. Sixteen playwrights bracketed sweet sixteen-style to go head to head. They have 48 hours to write an original audio play with given parameters. The plays are then recorded and edited and rolled out in their bracketed pairs. The audience then decides who wins each bracket battle by voting at our website at www.conemanrunning.com. Once the winners are selected, they will then go head to head until there is only one playwright left standing!
RSS Feed: http://warofthewords.libsyn.com/rss

(See comments for part 2.)
Previous months are available here:
https://www.thecambridgegeek.com/results.php?proof=Releases&tag1=Audio%20fiction
And the ongoing updates (just in case you don't want to wait for the end of the month) are available here:
https://twitter.com/AudioDramaDebut
And I do a weekly podcast collecting a few trailers here:
https://www.thecambridgegeek.com/archive/add/add.php
submitted by thecambridgegeek to audiodrama [link] [comments]


2019.03.30 02:50 AdmiralAkbar1 Hitler or Churchill or Holocaust Denialism, or /u/AdmiralAkbar1 takes a Hitler apologia-riddled online quiz to find all the hidden bullshit

A few days ago, I discovered a site called HitlerorChurchill.info, which consisted of a quiz where you determine if a fact or a quote refers to Adolf Hitler or Winston Churchill. I assumed it was just part of the trend of "contrarian pop history," along the lines of Cracked.com, The Oatmeal, Adam Ruins Everything, or Lies My Teacher Told Me: information that is designed to break the Bowdlerized views of historical figures that we were taught in middle school, as well as letting you act really smug about it. While some of them do go over-the-top and substitute one myth for another, the majority of them are still fairly accurate.
At least, that's how it seems at first glance. I'll go through the list and address the questions point-by-point, labeling the correct answer with [Hitler] or [Churchill].
Chancellor of Germany. Led Germany in the fight against the Allies (United Kingdom, United States, and Soviet Union) during World War II. [Hitler]
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Led the United Kingdom in the fight against the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) during World War II. [Churchill]
He was born on November 30, 1874 into the aristocracy of his country. [Churchill]
He was born on April 20, 1889 into a working class familly [sic]. [Hitler]
He joined the army and wrote popular books about his military adventures. [Churchill]
He lived as a drifter for 2 years. [Hitler]
Fought for his country in World War 1. He received: The Military Cross, Iron Cross Second Class, Iron Cross First Class, and 6 medals for bravery. He was wounded twice. [Hitler]
He resigned from his appointed position of First Lord of the Admiralty after the failed Gallipoli campaign in 1915-1916. [Churchill]
All of them are somewhat simplified factoids, but so far so good.
He published an article in 1920 that accused Jews of being behind the Communist Revolution in Russia. [Churchill]
Presumably referring to Churchill's editorial "Zionism versus Bolshevism", published in London's Illustrated Sunday Herald on February 8, 1920. While he does paint broad brushstrokes against what he describes as "international Jews" and "terrorist Jews" (and says that Jews had disproportionate influence over the Russian Revolution), he does acknowledge that there are many Jews who are morally upright citizens of their home nations ("national Jews"), and that there are "many non-Jews every whit as bad as the worst of the Jewish revolutionaries" in Russia, Hungary, Germany, etc.'s post-WW1 revolutions. I'm not an expert on the history of anti-Semitism nor will I pretend I am, but from my experience, this seems like a rather nuanced view of the Jewish people as a whole, especially when compared to more virulent anti-Semites from a century ago. while Churchill was definitely an anti-Semite (as were a great many people who were trying to find a group to point the finger at for the Russian Revolution), his anti-Semitism didn't reach the terrifying new heights that Hitler's did (though to be fair, 'being more anti-Semitic than Hitler' is a very high bar to pass).
He published a book in 1925 that, among other things, accused Jews of being behind the Communist Revolution in Russia. [Hitler]
Referring, of course, to Mein Kampf. Hitler has lovely quotes in there about the Russian Revolution, such as, "In Russian Bolshevism we must see the attempt undertaken by the Jews in the twentieth century to achieve world domination." He believed that the entire revolution was orchestrated by Jews as part of a worldwide conspiracy in which every Jew was complicit. Certainly not comparable to Churchill's view on Jews as a whole.
He viewed communism as a poison to Europe and decided his life's purpose was to root out and destroy it. [Hitler]
Though it doesn't mention that Hitler conflated Communism with the Jewish people.
He said that fascism "proved the necessary antidote to the communist poison." [Churchill]
The source of this quote is the New York Times article CHURCHILL EXTOLLS FASCISMO FOR ITALY; He Declares It Has Taught the World the Antidote for Communism, published on January 21, 1927. I can't figure out the context of the quote in the article due to it being behind a paywall. While it is true that Churchill was more sympathetic to fascism than he was to communism, it seems that he always hailed modern democratic liberalism as the ideal form of government, and was opposed to the spread of fascism within Britain itself.
He said that Gandhi: "ought to be lain bound hand and foot at the gates of Delhi, and then trampled on by an enormous elephant with the new Viceroy seated on its back." This colorful commentary may have been a product of his terminal drinking habit. [Churchill]
According to Churchill historian Richard Langworth, the origin of this Gandhi quote have a rather spurious origin.
He said of Mussolini, the leader of fascist Italy: "Roman genius ... the greatest lawgiver among men." [Churchill]
This quote seems to originate from the same 1927 trip as the "necessary antidote" quote given above. The points I made above still apply to this quote.
He was a suporter of eugenics, and introduced the Mental Deficiency Act that required those with mental disabilities to be confined to institutions for the duration of their lives, although he originally wanted sterilization. [Churchill]
The Mental Deficiency Act was passed in 1913, and Churchill supported it as an MP. However, it is important to note that the bill passed where all but 3 out of 670 MPs voted in favor. While his opinion is certainly horrendous by the standards of today, it was a belief that was quite in vogue among many members of society.
In 1934, he passed the law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring, also known as the Sterilization Law. Sterilization laws were also passed in Switzerland in 1928, Denmark in 1929, Norway in 1934, Sweden and Finland in 1935, Estonia in 1936, and Iceland in 1938. [Hitler]
The Law was actually passed in 1933 and went into effect in 1934. It was amended in 1935, that allowed 'High Genetic Courts' to revoke a patient's right to appeal a sentence of enforced sterilization, as well as mandating sterilization for all Afro-German "Rhineland Bastards" (allegedly fathered from German mothers and Afro-French soldiers after World War I). The point also makes no mention of Aktion T4, the Nazi program of enforced euthanasia of the mentally ill that started in 1939.
He frequently blamed Jewish bankers for his country's economic problems, saying they stole and lived off his people like a parasite, buying media to cover their crimes and control the country's politics. [Hitler]
He believed that Jewish artists, academics, filmakers [sic], and theatre owners used their positions of influence to promote moral and cultural decay in the form of pornography, modern art, and sexual deviancy. [Hitler]
These are both pretty undisputed.
He said “In my opinion, the Americans are right in not wanting to make everyone the same but rather in upholding the principle of the ladder. However, every single person must be granted the opportunity to climb up the ladder.” [Hitler]
The quote is from an April 4, 1934 interview with Associated Press journalist Louis Lochner, later transcribed in the Nazi newspaper Völkischer Beobachter (the only link to the full translated article I can find seems to be from some neo-Nazi site, however). The specific context of the quote was Hitler arguing that 'Work for All' (presumably referring to public works like the Autobahn) would lead to rising standards of living for all, before going on to talk about intellectual property rights. I'm not an expert on Nazi economics, but even I can tell that this quote was deliberately removed from context to try and paint Hitler as a benevolent social democrat-type providing a strong safety net to all. Of course, in this case, "all" means "all loyal Germans who support the Party and nobody else."
When he came to power, the unemployment rate was 30%. His country was experiencing massive debt and hyperinflation. 5 years later, his country had a shortage of labor and a stable economy. [Hitler]
"It is not the [country] of the decade that followed the war-broken, dejected and bowed down with a sense of apprehension and impotence. It is now full of hope and confidence...one man has accomplished this miracle...the old trust him; the young idolize him. It is not the admiration accorded to a popular leader. It is the worship of a national hero who has saved his country from utter despondence and degradation...I have never met a happier people" - David Lloyd George, Ex-Prime Minister, UK. To whom was this quote referring to? [Hitler]
Both of these quotes concern the Nazi "economic miracle." Plenty of works (notably Adam Tooze's The Wages of Destruction) go far more in-depth on how the Nazi economy was more or less constantly running on borrowed time and doomed to fail at some point than I could.
He introduced The People's Budget which increased taxes on the wealthy in order to fund social programs. [Churchill]
The People's Budget was passed in 1910 when Churchill was President of the Board of Trade in Parliament. He was one of the bill's primary proponents, along with David Lloyd George (then-Chancellor of the Exchequer).
He helped set up his country's first minimum wage and pensions for the unemployed. [Churchill]
The Trade Boards Act, which created boards that could set minimum wages, was passed in 1909 (around the same time the People's Budget was being debated). This was another law Churchill was a proponent of.
He was behind the National Insurance Act, which provided sickness and unemployment benefits. [Churchill]
The National Insurance Act was in 1911, with Lloyd George and Churchill once again backing it.
The reason these are all included is presumably to establish the idea that Churchill and Hitler were both benevolent social democrats who used their power solely for altruistic reasons.
He outlawed inhumane animal experiments in 1933. [Hitler]
The Reich Animal Protection Act was passed in November of 1933, which banned things such as vivisection and abusing animals for entertainment purposes. However, this ignores the fact that they also banned animal welfare groups that were anti-Nazi, as well as how they were completely okay with vivisection and medical experimentation on living people.
His government was the first to actively campaign against smoking. This man personally funded the Institute for the Struggle Against Tobacco. His country became the first in the world to ban smoking on public transit. [Hitler]
This is true, though part of it was for political or racial reasons (some cigarette companies had Jewish shareholders, and they didn't want Aryans to have genetically defective babies). The program was also a failure, with cigarette consumption continually rising throughout the 1930s.
In 1937 his government enacted the world's first laws which prohibited the sale of alcohol to minors and enacted stiff penalties for drunken driving. They also introducted the first blood tests for automobile drivers suspected of driving drunk. [Hitler]
However, it doesn't mention that the Nazis went way beyond everyone else and allowed alcoholics to be forcibly sterilized by the government (see the above point about sterilization).
Hosted the 1936 Olympic Games. His country came first (89 medals), followed by the United States (56 medals). [Hitler]
Not really a controversial statement by any regards. I wonder why they'd-
Jessie [sic] Owens was an African-American gold medalist in the 1936 Olympic Games. From Owens' autobiography (The Jessie Owens Story): "When I passed [this man] he arose, waved his hand at me, and I waved back at him. I think the writers showed bad taste in critizing [sic] the man of the hour". Owens also mentions in his autobiography that this man sent him a commemorative photo after the games. Which man was Owens referring to? [Hitler]
Ah.
However, it should be noted that Hitler refused to shake the hands of any Olympic victors because he wanted to only shake the hands of German medalists, while he was told by the IOC that it was all-or-nothing.
He said "Individual Moslems may show splendid qualities, but the influence of the religion paralyzes the social development of those who follow it. No stronger retrograde force exists in the world [...] and were it not that Christianity is sheltered in the strong arms of science, the science against which it (Islam) has vainly struggled, the civilization of modern Europe might fall, as fell the civilization of ancient Rome." [Churchill]
These quotes seem to be from Churchill's 1899 book The River War. It's important to remember, however, that Churchill was writing for a predominantly imperialist audience at the time, and it was over 40 years before he'd become Prime Minister.
His country signed the Haavara Agreement with Zionist Jews in order to help them move into Israel. [Hitler]
Ah, the Haavara agreement. Classically coupled with the implication that if the Jews didn't leave Germany, they more or less 'had it coming.' The agreement required any Jews moving to British Palestine to forfeit large amounts of their personal assets, and the only significant assets that they could have shipped with them would have to be German-bought. This was deliberately designed to force Jewish emigrants to break the anti-Nazi boycott (which was in response to the Nazis encouraging an anti-Jewish boycott), which inevitably incensed a great many German Jews. OF course, this was all going on as more and more anti-Jewish laws were passed, and the program was frozen entirely in 1939.
In short, this was done less out of the goodness of Hitler's heart (the opposite, in fact) and more to wring every last penny out of Jewish emigrants as they could.
He said "I am, of course, a Zionist, and have been ever since the Balfour Declaration." [Churchill]
This is clearly meant to suggest a kind of equivalence between Hitler and Churchill when it comes to anti-Semitism. Of course, you don't need to be a historian to know just what Hitler ended up doing about the "Jewish question."
In a 1936 broadcast, he said "we will force this war upon [the other man], if he wants it or not". [Churchill]
Once again, this is a quote of dubious provenance. I can't find any dates on this besides "a 1936 broadcast," and most of the sources seem to be unverified or crackpots.
He was accused of invading Austria, despite a referendum where 95% of the people voted to join his country. As a sign of good faith, troops from each country entered the other. Austria's economy quickly recovered from the Great Depression thereafter. [Hitler]
The Germans claimed that 99% of voters supported the Anschluss- while there was definitely popular support, and evidence of vote rigging isn't too widespread, the poll wasn't secret (meaning that there were campaign workers looking at who selected what option). To quote It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia, plenty of people likely voted yes "because of the implication."
Infamous for The Night of Broken Glass, an anti-Jewish riot that broke out after a Jew assasinated [sic] one of this man's diplomats. [Hitler]
I'd personally use "pogrom," seeing how thousands of synagogues and Jewish-owned houses were destroyed and tens of thousands of Jews were imprisoned, but yeah. The biggest Nazi justification for the violence was that the Nazi diplomat Ernst von Rath was assassinated in Paris by the Polish Jew Herschel Grynszpan in retaliation for his parents being deported from Germany.
He said: "Expulsion is the method which, insofar as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting. There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble ... A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which are more possible in modern conditions." He supported the expulsion of 15 million occupied civilians from territories they inhabited which resulted in the deaths of over 2 million people. [Churchill]
While that quote does seem genuine, the numbers seem to be exaggerated, and that the site's creator went with the largest possible number regardless of the most widely-accepted figures. The death toll is estimated to be about 1/4 of what the quiz says.
Responsible for burning literature and art that were deemed undesirable, such as communist literature, pornography, and modern art. [Hitler]
Not an objectionable statement.
Invaded neutral Poland after Poland refused to allow him to build a road through the Danzig Corridor and after his people living in the region faced persecution from the Poles. The Danzig Corridor is a 20-70 mile wide piece of land given to Poland after World War I which ran through the middle of this man's country, splitting it in two. [Hitler]
An objectionable statement. Most, if not all, of the claimed Polish aggression against Germany was either propaganda or false flag attacks in order to justify an invasion.
Accused the other of trying to take over the world at a time when his country controlled the largest empire in history. [Churchill]
Of course, this is trying to make the British look like hypocrites and is basically a rehash of the old German "place in the sun" argument. While the attitude of "You can invade random African countries, but God help you if you start invading European countries" is definitely fucked up, it doesn't change the fact that Hitler was a warmonger.
Promtly [sic] declared war on the other for invading Poland, but did not declare war on the Soviet Union for invading Poland immediately after. Did not declare war on the Soviet Union when they invaded Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, or Estonia thereafter. [Churchill]
That was mostly because Britain and France were still relatively ill-prepared for war, and going to war against both Germany and the Soviets would be suicide. Tragic, but ultimately understandable in the circumstances.
Also, Churchill wasn't PM when that happened.
He said: "I have devouted [sic] no less effort to the achievement of Anglo-German friendship. At no time and in no place have I ever acted contrary to [your] interests...Why should this war in the West be fought?" [Hitler]
This was from a speech made in October of 1939, basically trying to convince the Allies to sue for peace and leave Poland to its fate. This wasn't Germany trying to dissuade a belligerent Britain, this was belligerent Germany trying to convince Britain to stay out of their way.
This man refused numerous peace offers and kept them from the public out of the fear that knowledge of them would discourage neutral countries from getting involved on his side, instead looking for peaceful alternatives. [Churchill]
I have no idea what exactly this is referring to, personally. If you guys have any ideas what specific treaties Churchill privately rejected, please let me know.
Sent his close friend, Rudolf Hess, to parachute into enemy territory carrying an offer of peace in 1941. Hess was arrested and held in solitary confinement during the duration of the war. Hess would later be sentenced to life in prison where he ostensibly committed suicide at age 93.
Hitler didn't send Hess, he went of his own volition and without Hitler's knowledge. Of course, hearing about this seriously pissed Hitler off and basically disowned Hess for it. It's also generally agreed that Hess did commit suicide.
In 1940, while his country was clearly winning, he said "I see no reason why this war must go on. I am grieved to think of the sacrifices which it will claim. I would like to avert them." [Hitler]
Of course you'd try and get a favorable peace treaty while you're winning. Trying to end the war on a high note doesn't change the fact that Hitler still started it.
This man's country invaded neutral Belgium in order to attack France. [Hitler]
This is true.
This man's country invaded neutral Norway in an attempt to cut off iron resources to their enemies. [Churchill]
This is not true.
While the British did start mining the North Sea (including Norwegian territorial waters) to stop Swedish shipping, they didn't actually have any boots on the Ground. The British did plan a counter-invasion, but only in the event that the Germans invaded Norway. The first country to actually invade Norway was Germany, on April 9, 1940.
This man's country invaded neutral Holland for it's strategic location and for collaborating with its enemies. [Hitler]
This is an uncontroversial statement. What's their game with this one?
This man's country invaded neutral Iceland after failing to convince Iceland to join the war with them. [Churchill]
Iceland was technically part of Denmark, which the Nazis had already conquered. It was hardly an 'invasion,' either- there was no military resistance, and the Icelandic government was compensated with some nice trade agreements and monetary payments after they protested about it.
Was the first to begin attacking the other man's country with civilian targetted [sic] bombing raids. [Churchill]
While the British were the first to bomb Germany, the Germans were the first ones to do strategic bombing. In fact, the first air raid of the war was on the Polish town of Wielun by the Luftwaffe, which killed 127 civilians.
His army burned the houses of those expected to be partisans of one particular ideology. [Hitler]
This isn't wrong.
When his armies entered the Ukraine, they were hailed as liberators. Locals would give flowers to his troops as they passed. [Hitler]
While there was Ukrainian collaboration with the Nazis, it was hardly a liberation. When a group of Ukrainian nationalists (including some formerly amenable to the Nazis) proclaimed a new government, the Nazis arrested its leaders and sent them to concentration camps. By the time the Red Army returned, the Ukrainians were welcoming them as liberators too.
600,000 foreigners from 30 different countries volunteered to fight for him. The volunteers were mostly from European countries but also included tens of thousands of Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs. He created special divisions in his army for the foreign volunteers. [Hitler]
From what I can see, this is all true.
Ordered diversion of food away from India in order to feed his troops, which resulted in the 1943 Bengal famine that saw 2,000,000 Indians starve to death. Refused offers from Canada and the United States to ship free food to the starving country. He blamed the Indians themselves for the famine, saying that they "breed like rabbits". [Churchill]
The Bengal Famine is certainly a black mark on Churchill and the British government as a whole, and it was definitely as bad as it was as a result of British military requisitions. However, I can't find any evidence of Churchill refusing to allow foreign aid, and the British government actually did provide substantial humanitarian aid in the crisis's wake (despite waffling on officially declaring a state of famine).
His country betrayed tens of thousands of Croats that had surrendered to them in Austria, resulting in the Bleiburg Massacre.
The British actually halted repatriations of Croat fascist collaborators to Yugoslavia when they heard about the massacres. Also, none of the massacres actually happened in or near Bleiburg.
Infamous for his concentration camps, which acted as prisons for communists, many of whom were Jewish. The camps were also ostensibly used to facilitate the deportation of Jews out of his country.
And this is where it goes from red flags to giant fucking football-field-sized red banners. While many of the early concentration camps within Germany (e.g., Dachau and Buchenwald) were used for imprisoning communists and political dissidents, the vast majority of people who were imprisoned or perished were mostly ethnic Jews, Romani/Sinti, homosexuals, and prisoners of war (especially from the Soviet union).
Also note how it mentions that Jews were "ostensibly deported" instead of, you know, murdered by the million.
The majority of deaths in his country's concentration camps came during the final year of the war, when his country's infrastructure was destroyed, which prevented food and medical supplies from being distributed. [Hitler]
The peak of the death toll was during Operation Reinhard, which ended in November of 1943 and saw over a third of the Holocaust's total Jewish deaths. Furthermore, many of the extermination camps were shut down by 1943-44. This point is basically trying to use the "they all died of typhus" defense for explaining the camps' death toll, while also obliquely blaming it on the allies (suggesting that if they hadn't bombed the infrastructure, the deaths could be averted).
After his country took control of them, the mortality rates in concentration camps increased, due mainly to outbreaks of disease. [Churchill]
The Rheinwiesenlager were operated by the US army, not the British, and they did not use repurposed German concentration camps. Also, the death toll was only around 4,500. James Bacque's claims of hundreds of thousands of deaths is taken seriously by nobody.
He and his allies refused to let the International Red Cross moniter [sic] their prisoner of war camps. [Churchill]
The British actually permitted the Red Cross into their occupation zone a year before the Americans did.
The International Red Cross monitered [sic] his concentration camps and issued a report stating that 271,000 people died in them.
Oh god, the "only 300,000" claim. The Red Cross actually refuted this in a 1975 letter (sorry for the random caption on the bottom), saying that the 300,000 claim only refers to the number of German citizens who perished. The vast majority of Holocaust victims were from Poland, the USSR, and other occupied countries.
The day the war ended, the New York Times published an article by C.L. Sulzberger. The article referenced a Soviet report that accused this man of using gas chambers to kill Jews and that 4 million Jews were killed at Auschwitz. The official Auschwitz death toll has since been reduced to 1 million. [Hitler]
The Soviet (and later communist Polish) governments were the only ones who propagated the claim, which was never taken that seriously by Western historians. The "6 million" figure for the total Jewish death toll of the Holocaust was always based on the far more reasonable estimation that Auschwitz's death toll was 1-1.5 million.
Was accused by the Office of Strategic Services (forerunner to the Central Intelligence Agency) of using dead Jews to make shrunken heads, lamp shades, and bars of soap - allegations which are today universally acknowledged as false. [Hitler]
Claims of Nazi lampshades were never taken as little more than rumors by historians, yet still lingered in popular culture. This is typical Holocaust denier fare: take a rumor, suggest that it's fact, then "reveal the truth" and make it weaker. It's like that one photo collage of Nazi soldiers doing mundane things, but obviously photoshopped by deniers into depicting atrocities, then suggesting that the photoshopped versions were from history books.
Supported the Morgenthau Plan, whose premise for long lasting peace was to totally destroy the infrastructure of a country in order to prevent the potential that it could become a military threat. [Churchill]
Churchill actually opposed the plan and only "agreed to consider it" at FDR's insistence. Obviously, the plan was never implemented.
In 1953 he was knighted and won the Nobel Prize. [Churchill]
No objection here.
John F Kennedy wrote of this man's country: "[they] are really too good - that's why people conspire against them". [Hitler]
This was written in 1937, when JFK visited Germany and was swept up in Germany's public facade as an economic miracle that saved the country from communism.
Oddly enough, another JFK diary from 1945 called Winston Churchill his "idol."
Well, that's it. In short, this quiz was a mix of facts, delibate lies of omission by removing context, and straight-up holocaust denialist propaganda designed to suggest that this Hitler guy was just really misunderstood, and I feel worse off for having taken it. While I do think that contrarian pop history does have an important role in provoking public debate on how we view historical figures, this is certainly not the kind that I want.
If I got any details wrong or overlooked something, please don't hesitate to let me know what it is so I can correct it.
submitted by AdmiralAkbar1 to badhistory [link] [comments]


2018.10.05 19:06 peterboykin TED MALLOCH on Eurabia in Europe

Guest post by Ted Malloch author of The Plot to Destroy Trump
Europe is full of ‘Last men’ (and perhaps women, I suppose we are now forced to say, given the incessant demand for political correctness).
Why is this so and who will come to dwell in these territories Europeans have hitherto called — home?
We are not talking about some imaginary seven kingdoms, as in the legendary but fictional television series, Game of Thrones, either.
The point of contention is about a real place, with real peoples, and real nations that have existed for centuries on end, perhaps thousands of years—called Europa.
Trends on immigration suggest what can only be termed, a self-imposed European death wish.
Look at any demographic map, preferably an interactive color one.
Of the 7.5 billion people presently on this earth, the vast majority, mostly in the southern hemisphere, and who are generally poor and backward, are trying to get to the northern hemisphere, where there are greater opportunities and very generous welfare states.
In recent polls 7 out 10 people from these lands say, given the chance, they want to flee their plight.
The last decade has seen more refugees, migrants and economic immigrants than at any point in human history: hundreds of millions. And it continues unabated.
They are dying in transit, drowning on the Mediterranean Sea, crossing arid desserts, on the back of trucks, and in cargo holds.
Human trafficking is big business.
The International Organization for Migration estimates that more than 1,000,000 migrants arrived in Europe by sea in each of the last three years, and tens if not hundreds of thousands more by land.
The numbers are astounding and only increasing.
Some 5000 new migrants arrive on the shores of Italy alone every day. Well they did, until recently, when Matteo Salvini won an election and became deputy prime minister and minister of the interior.
The US estimates it is now also populated by millions of illegal and undocumented immigrants.
In fact, about one-fourth of the 42.4 million foreign-born people living in the United States today are illegal immigrants – this amounts to roughly 10.5 million, according to an objective by the study by Center for Immigration Studies. A Yale study recently put the number at more than twice that amount.
Geostrategists cannot comprehend billions (yes, potentially billions) of people moving from South to North.
They can’t comprehend the risk or the total effects of this — world without borders.
Yet it is something that globalist political leaders actually seek and actively endorse.
Europe will change; is changing, in front of our very eyes.
This will happen…is happening, in our lifetimes, with globalist elites endorsing it as benign or even laudatory.
The ‘anywhere’ crowd with no attachment to place, custom or religion, favor such open borders.
The ‘somewhere’ folks who still have some degree of loyalty to national identity, tradition and religion do not share the same attitude.
As the global elites get their way we will witness the end of Europe and the emergence of the Last man.
And who is this Last man?
The Last man (in German, der letzte Mensch) is a description used by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche in Thus Spoke Zarathustra to describe men tired of life, who take no risks, and seek only comfort and idle security.
They exist without purpose or direction.
Their lives are pacifist and comfortable. There is no longer any distinction between strength and weakness, excellence and mediocrity.
Social conflict and challenges are defined out of existence. Everyone lives equally and in a “superficial” harmony of no consequence.
There is no originality or flourishing social trends or ideas, merely fashions. There is no innovation or creativity.
Individuality and thinking are suppressed.
According to Nietzsche, the Last man is the goal that modern society and western European civilization have set for themselves. Those writers who have sought to warn about this have failed to date.
Nietzsche warned that the society of the Last man could be too barren and decadent to support the growth of healthy human life or great individuals.
The Last man is only possible by mankind having bred an apathetic person who is unable to dream, who are unwilling to take risks, and simply earn their meager living and try to keep warm.
Even having children or concern for future generations is too much of a challenge and inconvenience.
Leadership is nothing more than a greater degree of ease and creature comfort. They are willing to make any temporary compromise so as to maintain their bodily comfort and exercise of physical pleasure.
The Last man, Nietzsche predicted, would be our response to the problem of nihilism.
Is Europe today ever closer to what Nietzsche described?
Has European decadence and anomie, adrift from its original moorings and spirituality, and more and more awash in a sea of unassimilated and perhaps unassimilable immigrants, with yet more on the way, brought us to this state?
Others have described the onslaught of Islamist immigrants who come to the west to exploit its wealth and flee the scourge of poverty and war of the places they have vacated.
They bring with them cultures of hate and the practice of terror as they find no way to immanatize their escahton and instead end up hating the very new places they inhabit and the way of life that has sustained it for centuries.
Picture The Jungle, the notorious migrant camp outside of Calais in France that typifies this result.
In their stead, they create what author Raheem Kassam, calls separatist “no go zones” of sharia law and so-called ‘honor killings’ and murder.
They are discontented, unattached, and strike out in terror — rebelling against life itself.
Such horrific events we are told are now “normal” in places like Nice, Paris, Munich, Madrid, Cologne, Manchester and London.
Our political elites, the very globalists who have opened the borders, say accept this new reality as the way of life, the ‘new normal.’ It is less challenging to analogize this problem to the older problem of assimilating “European” immigrants.
This is what the conservative philosopher, Roger Scruton lamented when he said, “Put simply, the citizens of Western states have lost their appetite for foreign wars; they have lost the hope of scoring any but temporary victories; and they have lost confidence in their way of life. Indeed, they are no longer sure what that way of life requires of them.”
If present trends continue, and every evidence — from Merkel to Macron, from Sweden to Canada suggests it will (Trump excluded) — the migrants will not abate.
They will come over the land and through the sea. Borders will become meaningless.
They will continue to come to open and willing arms (mostly unvetted single males of young adult status).
Make no mistake; this is nothing less than the utter and complete transformation of Europe into Eurabia, a cultural and political appendage of the Arab and Afro/Muslim world.
This Eurabia is fundamentally anti-Christian, anti-Western, anti-American, and anti-Semitic.
This is self-imposed suicide.
And with every passing day we see the further demise of the West, the onslaught of Eurabia (which could not be won at the gates of Vienna in 1683) and the nihilism — of the Last man.
The post TED MALLOCH on Eurabia in Europe appeared first on The Gateway Pundit.
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2018.07.17 01:46 Chtorrr cat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet. For the cat family, see Felidae. For other uses, see Cat (disambiguation) and Cats (disambiguation). For technical reasons, "Cat #1" redirects here. For the album, see Cat 1 (album). Domestic cat[1] Cat poster 1.jpg Various types of domestic cat Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification e Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Felinae Genus: Felis Species: F. silvestris Subspecies: F. s. catus Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Linnaeus, 1758[2] Synonyms Felis catus (original combination)[3] Felis catus domestica (invalid junior synonym)[4]
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus)[1][5] is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats[6] when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. They are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than seventy cat breeds recognized by various cat registries.
Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.[7]
Cats have a high breeding rate.[8] Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control.[9] In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with habitat destruction and other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations.[10] Cats are thought to be primarily responsible for the extinction of 87 species of birds,[11] and the presence of feral and free-ranging cats makes some otherwise suitable locations unsuitable for attempted species reintroduction.[12]
Because cats were venerated in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there,[13] but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9,500 years ago (7500 BC).[14] A genetic study in 2007[15] concluded that all domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today.[17][18] A 2017 study confirmed that domestic cats are descendants of those first domesticated by farmers in the Near East around 9,000 years ago.[19][20]
As of a 2007 study, cats are the second-most popular pet in the U.S. by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish.[21] In a 2010 study, they were ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned.[22]
Contents 1 Taxonomy and evolution 2 Nomenclature and etymology 3 Biology 3.1 Anatomy 3.2 Physiology 3.2.1 Nutrition 3.3 Senses 3.4 Health 3.4.1 Diseases 3.5 Genetics 4 Behavior 4.1 Sociability 4.2 Communication 4.3 Grooming 4.4 Fighting 4.5 Hunting and feeding 4.6 Running 4.7 Play 4.8 Reproduction 5 Ecology 5.1 Habitats 5.2 Feral cats 5.3 Impact on prey species 5.4 Impact on birds 6 Interaction with humans 6.1 Cat show 6.2 Cat café 6.3 Ailurophobia 6.4 Cat bites 6.5 Infections transmitted from cats to humans 6.6 History and mythology 6.6.1 Superstitions and cat burning 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Taxonomy and evolution Main article: Cat evolution The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago[23] and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme).[1][24] Members of the genus are found worldwide and include the jungle cat (Felis chaus) of southeast Asia, European wildcat (F. silvestris silvestris), African wildcat (F. s. lybica), the Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), and the Arabian sand cat (F. margarita), among others.[25]
The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcat, whose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa.[26][27] Between 70,000 and 100,000 years ago the animal gave rise to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domesticated cats,[28] having diverged from the Near Eastern wildcat around 8,000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16]
The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1758.[1][2] Because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are usually regarded as another subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris.[1][29][30] This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus.[1][29][30] Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of F. catus,[30] but in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature fixed the name for wildcats as F. silvestris.[31] The most common name in use for the domestic cat remains F. catus. Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus[32] as proposed by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben in 1777,[33] but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature.[34] A population of Transcaucasian black feral cats was once classified as Felis daemon (Satunin 1904) but now this population is considered to be a part of the domestic cat.[35]
All the cats in this genus share a common ancestor that is believed to have lived around 6–7 million years ago in the Near East (the Middle East).[36] The exact relationships within the Felidae are close but still uncertain,[37][38] e.g. the Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a subspecies of the wildcat, like the North African variety F. s. lybica.[29][37]
Ancient Egyptian sculpture of the cat goddess Bastet. The earliest evidence of felines as Egyptian deities comes from c. 3100 BC. In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild.[39][40] Fully domesticated house cats often interbreed with feral F. catus populations,[41] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat. This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felids, notably the Asian leopard cat.[42] Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have predisposed them for domestication as pets.[40] These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.[43]:12–17 Several small felid species may have an inborn tendency towards tameness.[40]
Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated. In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin.[44] This has been criticized as implausible, because the reward for such an effort may have been too little; cats generally do not carry out commands and although they do eat rodents, other species such as ferrets or terriers may be better at controlling these pests.[29] The alternative idea is that cats were simply tolerated by people and gradually diverged from their wild relatives through natural selection, as they adapted to hunting the vermin found around humans in towns and villages.[29]
Nomenclature and etymology The origin of the English word cat (Old English catt) and its counterparts in other Germanic languages (such as German Katze), descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial. It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta (used around 75 AD by Martial),[45][46] compare also Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, and Old Church Slavonic kotъ (kotka), among others.[47] The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggesets the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa.[48] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t,[49] but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."[48] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gađfe, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'.[50] In any case, cat is a classic example of a Wanderwort.
An alternative word is English puss (extended as pussy and pussycat). Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat.[51][52]
A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring;[53] a male cat is called a tom or tomcat[54] (or a gib,[55] if neutered); an unspayed female is called a queen,[56] especially in a cat-breeding context; and a juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire,[57] and its mother is its dam[58] In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now obsolete word catling.[59]
A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred (or pure-bred) cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats (by coat type), or commonly as random-bred, moggies (chiefly British), or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding) mongrels or mutt-cats.
While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed (being subspecies of the same species), several intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other. The semi-feral cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Truly feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are typically wary of human interaction.[41]
Biology Anatomy Main article: Cat anatomy
Diagram of the general anatomy of a male Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the genus Felis, typically weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb).[37] Some breeds, such as the Maine Coon, can occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb). Conversely, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported.[60] The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb).[61][self-published source] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb).[61] Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats. The Boston Cat Hospital weighted trapped feral cats, and found the average feral adult male to weigh 4 kg (9 lb), and average adult female 3 kg (7 lb).[62] Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females), with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length;[63] feral cats may be smaller on average.
Cats have seven cervical vertebrae, as do almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae like most mammals (humans have five); and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx).[64]:11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis.[64] :16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head.[65]
Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized jaw.[66]:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death.[67] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.[67] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.[66]:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection.[68]
Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.[69] Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards): the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.[70]
Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws.[71] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.[72] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.[73] The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws).[73] These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.[74]
Physiology Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but displays several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species.[32] For instance, cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C (100 °F), but cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C (126 °F),[66]:46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C (133 °F) if they have access to water.[75]
Normal physiological values[76]:330 Body temperature 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute
Thermograph of various body parts of a cat Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads,[77] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures[78] (but may also pant when stressed). A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.[79]:1 Cats' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain as much water as possible.[32] Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water,[80] and can even rehydrate by drinking seawater.[81][79]:29While domestic cats are able to swim, they are generally reluctant to enter water as it quickly leads to exhaustion.[82]
Nutrition Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.[32] In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.[32] A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates.[83] These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids.[83] Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require,[84] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.[85] However, veterinarians in the United States have expressed concern that many domestic cats are overfed.[86]
Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to supply dietary fiber, helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit.[87]
Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal.[88] Arginine is an essential additive in cat food because cats have low levels of the enzymes aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate which are responsible for the synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in the small intestine.[89] Citrulline would typically go on to the kidneys to make arginine, but because cats have a deficiency in the enzymes that make it, citrulline is not produced in adequate quantities to make arginine. Arginine is essential in the urea cycle in order to convert the toxic component ammonia into urea that can then be excreted in the urine. Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a build up of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.[89] The symptoms of hyperammonemia include lethargy, vomiting, ataxia, hyperesthesia and can be serious enough to induce death and coma in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet. The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the other amino acids, which will continue to be catabolized by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.
Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine,[note 1] with a deficiency in this nutrient causing macular degeneration, wherein the cat's retina slowly breaks down, causing irreversible blindness.[32] This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats.[91] This limits the ability of cats to biosynthesize the taurine they need from its precursor, the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function.[91] Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems.[91] These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.[91]
In order to produce the essential vitamin niacin for use in the cat, tryptophan is needed for conversion purposes. However, due to a competing pathway with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), niacin can become deficient and require supplementation.[92] This process occurs when an overactive enzyme, picolinic acid carboxylase, converts the vitamin B6 precursor picolinic acid into the alternate compound acetyl-CoA, instead of converting quinolinate into nictotinic acid mononlucleotide (niacin).[93] Niacin is required in cats as it supports enzyme function. If niacin is deficient in the diet, anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature can result.[94]
Preformed vitamin A is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet. Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.[92] Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A).[95] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of carotenoids not taking place.[93]
Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.[96] Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydrocholesterol.[97] This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of calcium and phosphorus.[97]
Cats, like all mammals, need to get linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, from their diet. Most mammals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, as well as the omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats.[92] The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate (salt form of arachidonic acid) in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats.[92] This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid. Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin (e.g. around the mouth) decreased platelet aggregation, fatty liver, increase in birth defects of kittens whose queens were deficient during pregnancy, and reproductive failure in queens.[92] Arachidonic acid can also be metabolized to eicosanoids that create inflammatory responses which are needed to stimulate proper growth and repair mechanisms in the cat.[98]
Cat food § Nutrient chart provides a list of the many nutrients cats require as well as the use of the nutrients in the body and the effects of the deficiency.
Senses Main article: Cat senses
Reflection of camera flash from the tapetum lucidum Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.[66]:43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light.[99] Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes. Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils.[100] These slit pupils can focus bright light without chromatic aberration, and are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats.[100] At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes.[101] However, domestic cats have rather poor color vision and (like most nonprimate mammals) have only two types of cones, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green.[102] A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rods which might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision.[103]
Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.5 octaves, while humans and dogs both have ranges of about 9 octaves.[104][105] Cats can hear ultrasound, which is important in hunting[106] because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls.[107] However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do. Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal,[104] being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.[108] This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae), which both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.[106]
Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5.8 cm2 (0.90 in2) in area, which is about twice that of humans.[109] Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol,[110] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands.[111] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion.[112] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.[113] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.[114]
Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue).[115] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness.[116] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes.[117] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing).[115]
The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage.[66]:47
File:BIOASTRONAUTICS RESEARCH Gov.archives.arc.68700.ogv Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity versus zero gravity Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard.[118] Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility.[119] This is known as the cat righting reflex. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3.0 ft). Cats without a tail (e.g. many specimens of the Manx and Cymric breeds) also have this ability, since a cat mostly relies on leg movement and conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat.[120] Their excellent sense of balance allows cats to move with great stability. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.[121]
Health Main articles: Cat health and Aging in cats The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years,[122]:33[123] rising to 9.4 years in 1995[122]:33 and 15.1 years in 2018.[124] However, cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s,[125] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38.[126]
Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.[122]:35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer.[127]
Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.[128]:45[129]:1358 [130][131][132][133]
Diseases Main article: Feline diseases A wide range of health problems may affect cats, including infectious diseases, parasites, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas.[134]
Genetics Main article: Cat genetics The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes[135] and roughly 20,000 genes.[136] About 250 heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors.[137] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases.[138][139]
Behavior See also: Cat behavior and Cat intelligence A black-and-white cat on a fence A cat on a fence Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night.[140][141] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times.[142] Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres).[141]
Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming.[143]
Sociability
Social grooming Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.[144][145] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.[34] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.[111] These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.[111] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling, and if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality, and always hunt alone.[146]
Cat with an Alaskan Malamute dog However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.[147]
Though cats and dogs are often characterized as natural enemies, they can live together if correctly socialized.[148]
Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat may function as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother,[149] and adult housecats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood,[150] a form of behavioral neoteny. The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly hard for humans to ignore.[151]
Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.[152]
Communication Main article: Cat communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing.[7] (By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.)[153]:208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats;[154][155] for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals.[155] Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.[145]
Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed,[156][157] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound.[158] It was, until recent times, believed that only the cats of the Felis genus could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard) also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.[159]
Grooming
The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. File:Housecat Grooming Itself.webm A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coat to keep it clean.[160] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500 μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid[161] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.[160]
Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females.[162] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male.[163] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home.[162] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones.[164]
An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat. When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.[154] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.[165]
Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus.[166] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.[167]
Hunting and feeding
A cat that is playing with a caught mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.
A domestic cat with its prey Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents,[168] and are often used as a form of pest control.[169][170] Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.4 to 3.7 billion birds and 6.9 to 20.7 billion mammals annually.[171][172] The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats. Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.[171][172] In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.[168]
Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.[146] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured.[173] Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.[174]:153
Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appalls cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat.[175] This behavior is referred to in the idiom "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "cat and mouse".
Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.[176] Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".[177][178] Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.[174]:153
Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat.[85][146] Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past.[146] They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea.[146][179] They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.[180][181]
Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult pademelon of around the cat's weight at 4 kg (8.8 lb).[182]
Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction,[183] they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.[184]
Running A veterinarian and columnist for Mercola Healthy Pets, Karen Shaw Becker, has compiled a list of the fastest and most athletic cat breeds. First is the Egyptian Mau, which can clock up to 30 miles per hour, faster than any other domestic cat breed in the world.[185][unreliable source] In descending order, Becker lists the other swift domestic cats: the Abyssinian cat, the Somali cat, the Bengal cat, the Savannah cat, the Manx cat ("He can jump and accelerate through the house like there's no tomorrow. Watch for his sharp turns and quick stops – you'll think he's a mini sports car in the shape of a cat."), the Siamese cat, the Ocicat, and the Oriental Shorthair.
The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog (excluding those born to run and race, such as the greyhound and the cheetah), but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.
Play Main article: Cat play and toys File:Play fight between cats.webmhd.webm Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey.[186] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.[187]
Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest (they become habituated) in a toy they have played with before.[188] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry.[189] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death.[190] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer's dot, which cats may chase.[191]
Reproduction See also: Kitten
When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior.
Radiography of a pregnant cat (about one month and a half) Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.[192] Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.[193]
After mating, the female washes her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.[192]
Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate.[194] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.[192]
A newborn kitten At 124 hours after conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs.[195][196]
The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days.[197] The size of a litter usually is three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks old, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males), although this can vary depending on breed.[192] Females can have two to three litters per year, so may produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding span of around ten years.[192]
Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age,[198] when they are ready to leave their mother. They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.[199] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months.[200] In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.[201]
Ecology Habitats
A cat in snowy weather Cats are a cosmopolitan species and are found across much of the world.[39] Geneticist Stephen James O'Brien, of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland, remarked on how successful cats have been in evolutionary terms: "Cats are one of evolution's most charismatic creatures. They can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts."[202] They are extremely adaptable and are now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands.[203][204]
Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.[205] Their habitats even include small oceanic islands with no human inhabitants.[206] Further, the close relatives of domestic cats, the African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and the Arabian sand cat (Felis margarita) both inhabit desert environments,[29] and domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.[32] The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive species.[207]
As domestic cats are little altered from wildcats, they can readily interbreed. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula.[42]
Feral cats Main article: Feral cat
Feral farm cat Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas.[9] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million.[9] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food.[208] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.[209]
Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin.[210] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia and Leukemia viruses, and then released.[211] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.[208]
Impact on prey species
Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.[168][212] Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial.[213] In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction.[206] In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals.[214] However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated. For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators.[215]
In isolated landmasses, such as Australasia, there are often no other native, medium-sized quadrupedal predators (including other feline species); this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals.[216] Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong, for example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats.[217] Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.[218]
Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such as Western Europe, cats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' carrying capacity (such as the numbers of prey available).[219][220] This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging. For instance, research in Britain suggests that a high proportion of cats hunt only "recreationally"[220], and in South Sweden, where research in 1982 found that the population density of cats was as high as 2,000 per square kilometre (5,200/sq mi).[219]
In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent harborage locations are kept under control.[221][222] While cats are effective at preventing rodent population explosions, they are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.[223]
Impact on birds
A black cat eating a house sparrow The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.8 million bird deaths each year.[168] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.[224] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat.[225] In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.[226] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety.[227] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet.[228] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect;[229] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail,[226] the New Zealand merganser,[230] and the common diving petrel[231] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery.[232][233]
Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.[234] The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.[235] These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat.[236] Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety"[237] and ground-nesting,[234] have also contributed to their susceptibility.
Interaction with humans Main article: Human interaction with cats
Cats and people Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million.[13] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women,[238] a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.[239]
As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur[240] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys;[241] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively[242] (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat).[243] This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union.[244] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft,[245] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism.[246] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.
A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies's one[247]) and over the Internet,[248][249] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.[250][251][252][253][254][255]
Cat show Main article: Cat show A cat show is a judged event where the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard.[256][257] Both pedigreed and companion (or moggy) cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Cats are compared to a breed standard,[258] and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.
Cat café Main article: Cat café A cat café is a theme café whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with.[259] Patrons pay a cover fee, generally hourly and thus cat cafés can be seen as a form of supervised indoor pet rental.
Ailurophobia Main article: Ailurophobia Ailurophobia is a human phobia of cats; however, the term is often associated with humans that have a hatred of cats.[260]
Cat bites Main article: Cat bite Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive. Complications from cat bites can develop.[261] A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets. This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep punctures. Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps microorganisms that cause infection.[262][261]
Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Feline zoonosis Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.[263] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease,[264] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body.[263][265] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat scratch disease and toxoplasmosis.[264]
History and mythology Main articles: Cultural depictions of cats and Cats in ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians mummified dead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people.[266]
Ancient Roman mosaic of a cat killing a partridge from the House of the Faun in Pompeii
A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat Traditionally, historians tended to think ancient Egypt was the site of cat domestication, owing to the clear depictions of house cats in Egyptian paintings about 3,600 years old.[29] However, in 2004, a Neolithic grave excavated in Shillourokambos, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid close to one another, of both a human and a cat. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, pushing back the earliest known feline–human association significantly.[16][267][268] The cat specimen is large and closely resembles the African wildcat, rather than present-day domestic cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were probably domesticated in the Middle East, in the Fertile Crescent around the time of the development of agriculture, and then were brought to Cyprus and Egypt.[15][20] Direct evidence for the domestication of cats 5,300 years ago in Quanhucun, China has been published by archaeologists and paleontologists from the University of Washington and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The cats are believed to have been attracted to the village by rodents, which in turn were attracted by grain cultivated and stored by humans.[269]
In ancient Egypt, cats were sacred animals, with the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.[270]:220 Killing a cat was absolutely forbidden[266] and the Greek historian Herodotus reports that, whenever a household cat died, the entire family would mourn and shave their eyebrows.[266] Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis,[266] where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories.[266] Domestic cats were probably first introduced to Greece and southern Italy in the fifth century BC by the Phoenicians.[271] The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats.[272]:57–58[273]
Housecats seem to have been extremely rare among the ancient Greeks and Romans;[273] Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats.[273] Even during later times, weasels were far more commonly kept as pets[273] and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers.[273] The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail",[272]:57[273] but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice".[273] Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature,[273] but Aristotle does remark in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous."[272]:74[273] The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis.[272]:77–79 In Ovid's Metamorphoses, when the gods flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana (the Roman equivalent of Artemis) turns into a cat.[272]:79 Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice.[274] During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary.[274] Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family[274] and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a virgin cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten.[274] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.[270]:223
Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune.[275] In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats.[276] In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice.[277] The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals.[277] It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water.[277] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza.[278] He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it".[279] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad.[280] One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "Abu Hurayrah" (Father of the Kitten), in reference to his documented affection to cats.[281]
Superstitions and cat burning
Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them. Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade).[282] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized".[283]
"It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire."[284]
According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives,[285][286] while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six.[287] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive righting reflex to twist their bodies around. Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.[288]
See also
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Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. "BirdLife Conservation Series" No. 7. Cambridge, England: Burlington Press. ISBN 0-946888-33-7. Williams, A. J. (1984). "Status and Conservation of Seabirds at some Islands in the African Sector of the Southern Ocean". In Croxall, J. P.; Evans, P. G. H.; Schreiber, R. W. Status and Conservation of the World's Seabirds. Cambridge, England: International Council for Bird Preservation. pp. 627–635. Falla, R. A. (1955). New Zealand Bird Life Past and Present. Cawthron Institute.[page needed] Galbreath, R.; Brown, D. (2004). "The Tale of the Lighthouse-keeper's Cat: Discovery and Extinction of the Stephens Island Wren (Traversia lyalli)" (PDF). Notornis. 51: 193–200. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Dowding, J. E.; Murphy, E. C. (2001). "The Impact of Predation be Introduced Mammals on Endemic Shorebirds in New Zealand: A Conservation Perspective". Biological Conservation. 99: 47–64. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00187-7. Whiting, M. F.; Bradler,, S.; Maxwell,, T. (2003). "Loss and Recovery of Wings in Stick Insects". Nature. 421 (6920): 264–267. Bibcode:2003Natur.421..264W. doi:10.1038/nature01313. PMID 12529642. World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1992). Groombridge, Brian, ed. Global Biodiversity: Status of the Earth's Living Resources. Chapman & Hall. ISBN 0-412-47240-6. Steadman, D. W.; Martin, P. S. (2003). "The Late Quaternary Extinction and Future Resurrection of Birds on Pacific Islands". Earth Science Reviews. 61: 133–147. Bibcode:2003ESRv...61..133S. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00116-2. Ellin, Abby (5 October 2008). "More Men Are Unabashedly Embracing Their Love of Cats". New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2009. Jones, Jeffrey M. (30 November 2007). "Companionship and Love of Animals Drive Pet Ownership". Gallup Inc. Archived from the original on 25 July 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2009. "What Is That They're Wearing?" (PDF). Humane Society of the United States. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2009. Stallwood, Kim W., ed. (2002). A Primer on Animal Rights: Leading Experts Write about Animal Cruelty and Exploitation. Lantern Books. "Japan: Finale for the world's most elegant use of a dead cat". The Independent. 15 November 1997. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. "EU proposes cat and dog fur ban". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. 20 November 2006. Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009. Ikuma, Carly (27 June 2007). "EU Announces Strict Ban on Dog and Cat Fur Imports and Exports". HSUS.org. Humane Society International. Archived from the original on 17 February 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2011. Witchcraft and Magic in Europe, Volume 3: The Middle Ages. Karen Jolly, A&C Black, 2002 Paterson, Tony (25 April 2008). "Switzerland Finds a Way to Skin a Cat for the Fur Trade and High Fashion". The Independent. London, England. Archived from the original on 7 July 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2009. "Humane society launches national cat census". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012. "Cats Be". Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012. "The Supreme Cat Census". Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012. "About Pets". IFAHEurope.org. Animal Health Europe. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014. Legay, J. M. (1986). "Sur une tentative d'estimation du nombre total de chats domestiques dans le monde" [Tentative estimation of the total number of domestic cats in the world]. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série III (in French). 303 (17): 709–712. PMID 3101986. INIST:7950138. "Cats: Most interesting facts about common domestic pets". Pravda. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014. "Study Traces Cat's Ancestry to Middle East". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2014. Gehrt, Stanley D.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Cypher, Brian L. (12 March 2010). Urban Carnivores: Ecology, Conflict, and Conservation. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801893896. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2014. Rochlitz, Irene (17 April 2007). The Welfare of Cats. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781402032271. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2014. "All About Cat Shows". HowStuffWorks. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2018-06-08. "All About Cat Shows". HowStuffWorks. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2018-06-08. "All About Cat Shows". HowStuffWorks. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2018-06-26. "cat café". Cambridge English Dictionary. Retrieved 6 June 2018. Bartleby: Ailurophobes and Other Cat-Haters Archived 23 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine. "First Aid: Animal Bites". Nemours Foundation. 2017. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017. "Animal Bites". HandCare.org. American Society for Surgery of the Hand. 2017. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017. Chomel, Bruno (2014). "Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats". Animals. 4 (3): 434–445. doi:10.3390/ani4030434. ISSN 2076-2615. PMC 4494318 Freely accessible. PMID 26480316. "Cats". Ohio Department of Health. 21 January 2015. Archived from the original on 27 November 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016. Stull, J. W.; Brophy, J.; Weese, J. S. (2015). "Reducing the risk of pet-associated zoonotic infections". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 187 (10): 736–743. doi:10.1503/cmaj.141020. ISSN 0820-3946. PMC 4500695 Freely accessible. PMID 25897046. Clutton-Brock, Juliet (1999) [1987]. A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals (2nd ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 138. ISBN 0-521-63495-4. Muir, Hazel (8 April 2004). "Ancient Remains Could Be Oldest Pet Cat". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007. Walton, Marsha (9 April 2004). "Ancient Burial Looks Like Human and Pet Cat". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 23 November 2007. "Gatos fueron domesticados en China hace 5.300 años". La Nación (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014. Mason, I. L. (1984). Evolution of Domesticated Animals. Prentice Hall Press. ISBN 0-582-46046-8. Mark, Joshua J. (17 February 2012). "Cats in the Ancient World". Ancient.eu. Ancient History Encyclopedia Ltd. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Engels, Donald W. (2001) [1999]. Classical Cats: The Rise and Fall of the Sacred Cat. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26162-7. Rogers, Katherine M. (2006). Cat. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 18–20. ISBN 978-1-86189-292-8. Beadle, Muriel (1977). Cat. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 76. ISBN 978-0671224516. Pate, Alan (2008). "Maneki Neko: Feline Fact & Fiction". Daruma Magazine. Amagasaki, Japan: Takeguchi Momoko. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012. Faulkes, Anthony (1995). Edda. p. 24. ISBN 0-460-87616-3. Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews, Vol. I: The Sixth Day (PDF). Translated by Szold, Henrietta. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Geyer, Georgie Anne (2004). When Cats Reigned Like Kings: On the Trail of the Sacred Cats. Kansas City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 0-7407-4697-9. Reeves, Minou (2000). Muhammad in Europe. New York University Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-8147-7533-0. Al-Thahabi, Shamsuddin. "Biography of al-Rifai". سير أعلام النبلاء (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014. "Abu Hurairah and Cats". Pictures-of-Cats.org. 13 January 2015. "Are Black Cats Really Bad Luck? [Hoax]". SocialNewsDaily.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015. Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford University Press. p. 543. ISBN 0-198-20171-0. Frazer, Sir James George. The Golden Bough, (1922). Online version. Archived 8 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Sugobono, Nora (7 March 2010). "Las vidas del gato". El Comercio (in Spanish). Lima, Peru. Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2010. "Qual é a origem da lenda de que os gatos teriam sete vidas?". Mundo Estranho (in Portuguese). São Paulo, Brazil: Abril Media. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2015. Dowling, Tim (19 March 2010). "Tall tails: Pet myths busted". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2010. "The ASPCA Warns About High-Rise Falls by Cats: High-Rise Apartments, Windows, Terraces and Fire Escapes Pose Risk to Urban Cats". New York: American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 30 June 2005. Archived from the original on 22 May 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2018 – via About.com. (Press release.) External links Listen to this article (3 parts) · (info) Part 1 • Part 2 • Part 3
This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Cat" dated 2007-05-13, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles The dictionary definition of cat at Wiktionary Data related to Cat at Wikispecies Media related to Cat at Wikimedia Commons Animal Care at Wikibooks Quotations related to Cat at Wikiquote Wikisource-logo.svg "Cat, Domestic, The". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. High-Resolution Images of the Cat Brain Biodiversity Heritage Library bibliography for Felis catus Catpert. The Cat Expert – Cat articles View the cat genome in Ensembl vte Domestic cats Felinology Anatomy Genetics Dwarf cat Kitten Odd-eyed cat Squitten Coat genetics Bicolor cat Black cat Calico cat Tabby cat Tortoiseshell cat Health Aging Declawing Diet dental health senior Neutering Spaying Vaccination Behavior Body language Catfight Catnip Communication Meow Purr Kneading Intelligence Play and toys Righting reflex Senses Human–cat interaction Ailurophobia Animal-assisted therapy Cat cafés Cat massage Cat meat Cat-scratch disease Cat show Cats in ancient Egypt Cultural depictions Farm cat Feral cat Cats and Islam Puppy cat Ship's cat Zoonosis Registries American Cat Fanciers Association Associazione Nazionale Felina Italiana Canadian Cat Association Cat Aficionado Association Cat Fanciers' Association Fédération Internationale Féline Governing Council of the Cat Fancy Southern Africa Cat Council The International Cat Association World Cat Congress World Cat Federation Breeds (full list) (experimental breeds) Fully domestic Abyssinian American Curl American Shorthair Balinese Brazilian Shorthair British Shorthair Birman Bombay Burmese California Spangled Chartreux Chinese Li Hua Colorpoint Shorthair Cornish Rex Cymric Devon Rex Donskoy Egyptian Mau European Shorthair Exotic Shorthair German Rex Himalayan Japanese Bobtail Javanese Khao Manee Korat Kurilian Bobtail Maine Coon Manx Munchkin Norwegian Forest Ocicat Oriental Shorthair Persian Peterbald Pixie-bob Raas Ragdoll Ragamuffin Russian Blue Scottish Fold Selkirk Rex Siamese Siberian Singapura Snowshoe Somali Sphynx Thai Traditional Persian Tonkinese Toyger Turkish Angora Turkish Van Hybrid Bengal Chausie Highlander Savannah Serengeti Landraces Aegean Cyprus Domestic long-haired Domestic short-haired Kellas Sokoke Van Diseases and disorders Acne Asthma Calicivirus Congenital sensorineural deafness Flea Heartworm Hepatic lipidosis Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Immunodeficiency virus Infectious peritonitis Leukemia virus Lower urinary tract disease Panleukopenia Polydactyly Rabies Ringworm Roundworm Skin disorders Tick Toxoplasmosis Viral rhinotracheitis Wikipedia book Book Category Category Portal Portal vte Extant Carnivora species Taxon identifiers Wikidata: Q20980826 EoL: 4443860 EPPO: FELIDO Fossilworks: 104159 GBIF: 2435035 iNaturalist: 118552 IRMNG: 10196305 ITIS: 183798 MSW: 14000031 NBN: NHMSYS0000080189 NCBI: 9685 NZOR: 7d7d7c68-baa8-4908-bdc4-b747950f6318 Authority control GND: 4030046-8 HDS: 41559 NARA: 10647397 Categories: Domesticated animalsArticles with text from the Nubian languages collectiveCatsMammals described in 1758Cosmopolitan vertebratesInvasive mammal speciesVertebrate animal modelsCat diseases Navigation menu Not logged inTalkContributionsCreate accountLog inArticleTalkReadView sourceView historySearch
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2018.07.03 13:22 acloudrift AltHyp Direct Link Collection

Links here are supposed to go to texts only, except items posted by theAlternativeHypothesis.org (including its YTube channel) will be OK. If you want to post something else as a direct link, please send me a priv. msg., and if approved, I'll include it in this text post.
Aug.3 How Communism "works" for the Proletariat; Moral values (and customary conditions past, USSR; oral history per Olga Reznikova, Ukraine) 14 min indirect: https://www.reddit.com/todayplusplus/comments/i2v878/how_communism_works_for_the_proletariat_moral/
Jul.10 Introducing SaidIt, Infogalactic article on today++
Jul.8 YT videos from thealternativehypothesis.org have migrated to bitchute: https://www.bitchute.com/channel/thealthype/
Jun.28 Link suggested by u/bluedeer100 Communism's Christian Roots
Jun.27 Western Civ. has gotta go, to the Great Segregation Event...
Jun.23 Who Made the Coronavirus COVID-19 virus? (repost from Mar.2020)
Jun.21 Survey of Confucianism (tradition, philosophy, religion (humanist, rationalist), governance style, lifestyle)
Jun.20 Secret Agenda Behind BLM (Biden's Lame Misguidance) 21.7 min TrthFct Sen. Marsha Blackburn: The Tentacles of Communist China, from Confucius Institutes to Hong Kong 23.4 min
Jun.11 Adrenochrome Deception, The by wolfmoon1776 Feb.2019
Jun.9 Alternative Math of 'woke' culture, an Allegory (All's Well that ends Wellstyle) 8 min LoL, 8.5m views Underwater Aircraft Carriers: Imperial Japan’s Secret Weapon 13 min
Jun.3 A New Religion (for our tribe) 2018 NaVn
William Gayley Simpson Hans F.K. Guenther
May.18 news aggregator site DISSENT WATCH The Web's Most Forbidden News
May.14 Ryan Faulk (freelance academic), at odds, or evens with establishment Academia, social media?
May.10 Alternative View of Slavery in the United States 52 min
Faulk goes thru historic records to show blacks in the South were in better circumstances than the grievance narrative that's been promoted since the mid 1960s (my date estimate). Plentiful historic photos and illustrations.
May.8.2020 TIL Noble lie, aka "magnificent myth", "Pious fiction" (governance principle proposed by Plato) 'tis a wonder I've been so long not knowing
Apr.21 Trump, Rxer n Chief; see other links here too! Oriental Review
Apr.19 altfetish websites, new 153news and Certified Conspiracy
Apr.18 How the Zionist control of the US government can be broken: Zionism in America –Seven Strikes & Counting… RD Steele Dec.2017
Apr.16.2020 A Billion years disappeared (from geologic record; unconformity, 2 hypotheses) 11 min PBSEons
Feature Item The LEFT's beef with white people EXPLAINED 36 min musical finale is MAGNIFICENT
Fiscal Impact by Race in the United States 19.4 min Ryan Faulk narrates his data analysis study, with tables and charts
"Adolf Hitler an Appreciation" by Eustace Mullins; 1952 issue, p.4 of the National Renaissance Bulletin
Kol Nidre, swear words
Promotion of nationalism as part of an ideal environmental policy (and why the present policy sucks)
suggested by u/T1D2 Jews Behind 23andMe and Family Tree DNA
A sequence of magnificent AltHyp blogs, by admin-Non-Intervention2 latest Sep.6.2019 (yesterday)
Reader u/T1D2 suggested...
Learn the untold story about the most reviled man in history. Adolf Hitler, The Greatest Story Never Told is a 6-hour Documentary by TruthWillOut Films. index page Download options (w/video embed.) Adolf Hitler The Greatest Story Never Told 720p 1 - 8 full 6.4 hr show on YT
Enemies of the People
Oppressed Media YT channel
Reflections on the West’s Non-White Demographic Revolution: Edmund Burke and the Totalitarian Future of the West occobs
Burke’s belief that clergy were just as necessary as aristocracy for civilized life in the West originally stemmed from a conviction that religion was only as valuable as its social utility... globalists have waged all-out war on natural aristocracy, which is even more crucial for civilizational advancement.
Gen Z Blowback: Post-Millennial Whites React to Anti-White Agit-Prop OpEd Aug.2019 by R Winter
(another war leading to) third-position nationalism
Integration and Immigration OpEd by Steve Sailer Taki
F_ZION BitCHUTE channel (guess what the 'F' means)
Mind and Body; inseparable yes, distinguishable? Maybe less than you think (or feel?)
History of Palestine 1918 to 1948 HLS
Stuff that's really disgracefull reallygraceful YT channel
environmental terrorism blog; Jim Stone (multiple AltHyp style articles)
Canada's Chrystia Freeland letting her oligar-chic worldview out; pro-plutocratic vs damned-populist Ehret-blog, with links
The True Dystopic Threat to European Civilization: Sub-Saharan Africa Demographics wntrwch
demuckrats: Giuish Influence on America 2015 ntlvn
Avenues of Research into the Babylonian Talmud (homepage) (a deep look at Jewish religion from a Christian perspective)
9/11 Truth, Facts, Hidden History, abuse of power (home page) (very deep collection, navigation pane on left of display; some links may be dead, but try a search on title, dead item should be available elsewhere)
A Celebration of the Jewish People 20 min
Jared Diamond's book Guns Germs and Steel Faulk's Critique 2.7 hr AltHyp
Human Accomplishment Murray
Alt-Anti-PC, RWPC
ConservativeAmmo.com
reddit sub on Human Biological Diversity covers much the same territory as AltHyp
Unz Review: Alternative Media Selection (index page)
Our World According to Dr. Edward G. Dutton (The Jolly Heretic)
My Life as a Holocaust Denier, P. Eisen (Jewish) 2008 rtsjws (see links within) see also Survey of Ernst Zündel
Dark Suits Rule the US and Its Puppet Presidents, Reveals Putin (Stating the Obvious) frdmart
9/11 Truth, RDS ed. (illustrated) 100pg.pdf
Who Killed the Stonehenge People? (suggesting a theory of genetic turnover, native Neolithics vs IE Bell-Beakers in Bronze Age Britain) srvjv
Darkmoon at Expel the Parasite warning: tummy turning photo was removed
American government, beyond redemption and evil to the bone, is now no more than a criminal syndicate of psychopaths (for its support of Israel).
Mysterious Warplane That Stopped 9/11 Obliterates CIA-Amazon Cargo Flight Over Texas Feb.25,2019
A Defense of France’s Conduct in WW2
Birdman Bryant: The World's Most Controversial Author Index page
The Morality of Survival "The standards that govern public debate (nowadays) are reminiscent of the Dark Ages in that they have no basis in science or in human experience. Instead, they consist of moralistic assertions derived from a world view rooted in radical egalitarianism."
John Mark (UTube channel), for Propertarian and Winning Right (political identity)
African Airplane Compilation; Proof of Afro-engineering (witout da math); the cream of sub-Saharan genius 8.6 min badgoy
In Search of a High IQ African Population Do Africans Really Have an IQ of 70? 12.5 min
South Africa 2019: Beginning of the END (Boerland grab by blacks slated for Mar.2019, as constitutional amendment) 11 min BPS
Do Women vote with their whoremoans? and... Canada's posterboy JT (someone to moan about)
White WOMEN and children first!! Kenn Daily reports on South African political speaker Dec.15.2018
"My African Ancestry Test Results Were So Not Woke" (she says; warning: explicit, with dubious narration, preset to 9.5 min) AtheistRoo
... which would explain my results... (and help explain her obvious non-African good-looks; she needs to learn to appreciate her bounty of blessings)
‘We’ll kill their children & women’: Fury over black S. African politician’s call to kill whites RT
UN Migration Compact is 'Replacement Migration' 33 min rtmedia(benshields)
new report on replacement migration issued by un population division press release
US Military Shake-Up escalates in anticipation of big changes coming in 2019 Trump Empties World's Oceans Of US Aircraft Carriers For First Time In History Dec.21.2018 impidig
submitted by acloudrift to AlternativeHypothesis [link] [comments]


2018.01.01 04:08 Ultimatejerk What's Happening in JANUARY 2018?

Happy 2018 everyone!
Will be doing this complied list for those who cant be bothered to Google whats happening in Singapore, so yeah enjoy. If im doing anything wrong or if yall prefer more stuffs to be added inside or anything else, please feel free to suggest.
Open House (for the benefit of the Olevel kids that browses this sub) (to those that are going to kpkb, it will be removed once the event is over) (all open house information have been update and are accurate as of 06/01/2018 1812h, please do check their website before going down incase there are any more changes)
funkyspyspy has helped to create this spreadsheet for more information regarding the timing for course counselling for both poly and JC along with a complied list of open houses date here
Lasalle Open House
19 January 2018 l 3pm - 8pm 20 January 2018 l 11am - 5pm
Carnival
Pokemon Run Carnival @ Marina Barrage
27 January 2018 l Ticket prices starts from S$70
Pokémon Run Carnival 2018 SG is Southeast Asia's Pokémon themed fun run and is back again with an expansion of activities this coming January 2018! Get immersed into the life of a Trainer and spot various Pokémon along the route. Trainers can experience Pokémon of different series and anticipate the newly introduced Inflatable obstacles! There will also be a Pokémon Carnival area open to all! Come experience this thrilling Pokémon adventure on 27 January 2018! Gotta come catch'em all!
Prudential Marina Bay Carnival @ Marina Bay
15 December 2017 - 1 April 2018 l Free admission, Carnival rides, games, food paid.
Art
M1 Fringe Festival @ Various Locations
17 January 2018 - 28 January 2018
Events happening during the festival can be found here
The M1 Singapore Fringe Festival is an annual festival of theatre, dance, music, visual arts and mixed media created and presented by Singaporeans and international artists. Themed differently each year, the Festival aims to bring the best of contemporary, cutting-edge and socially engaged works to the Singapore audience.
The M1 Singapore Fringe Festival is set to be a creative centre, with the twin purpose of innovation and discussion, a platform for meaningful and provocative art to engage our increasingly connected and complex world.
Singapore Art Week @ Various Locations
17 January 2018 - 28 January 2018 l Ticketed and non ticketed
A joint initiative by the National Arts Council, the Singapore Tourism Board and the Singapore Economic Development Board, Singapore Art Week reinforces Singapore’s position as Asia’s leading arts destination. In its sixth edition in 2018, the twelve-day celebration of the visual arts will be taking place in venues across Singapore, from galleries and museums to art precincts and non-profit spaces. Reaching out to both Singapore residents and international visitors to promote art appreciation, Singapore Art Week offers a myriad of quality art experiences which span the visual arts, from traditional to modern to contemporary practices. Audiences can look forward to art fairs, gallery openings, exhibitions, lifestyle events, public art walks, and enriching discussions on art and culture. Singapore Art Week also aims to galvanise the arts sector to launch innovative art and lifestyle concepts and events in conjunction with art events during this period.
events happening at Singapore Art Week are as follow (this is not the full list of events happening are there are a lot more. Those listed here are the larger scale events. For full list, click here
Baby Space @ The Artground, Whitebox, 90 Goodman Road, Goodman Arts Centre, Singapore 439053 12 January 2018 - 28 January 2018 l Ticketed
Baby Space is a multi-sensory installation designed for babies 12 months and under. It is where contemporary dance, music and visual art meld together to form an immersive encounter with the arts. Babies will be encouraged to interact with the dancers and explore the installation in their own unique ways even after the performance is over.
Light to Night Festival 2018: Colour Sensations @ Civic District
19 January 2018 - 28 January 2018
Full list of events can be found over here The Light to Night Festival is back with an even bigger line-up! In its second edition, the festival explores the sensation of colours through spectacular facade shows across major cultural institutions and parks in the Civic District. On the weekends, late night programmes around the precinct will bring the experience of colours alive. Five new commissions by renowned artists from the region—Ho Tzu Nyen, Lee Mingwei, David Medalla and Pinaree Sanpitak—and "ultratechnologists" teamLab will also be unveiled.
Aliwal Urban Art Festival @ Aliwal Arts Centre, 28 Aliwai Street Singapore 199918
20 January 2018, Saturday l 5pm - 11pm l Free admission
Aliwal Urban Art Festival is an annual celebration Singapore cool. Get down to a carefully-curated selection of art inspired by global street culture – from graffiti to graphic art, rock to afro-beat, skateboarding to breakdancing.
Organised by Aliwal Arts Centre, the festival is located in Kampong Glam, a district hailed as 'one of Singapore's coolest neighborhoods' by the international media due to its rich history and culture, mixed with on-trend shops and cafes. Come as you are and join in the fun!
Art Apart Fair 10th Edition @ Goodwood Grand, House Nos 22, 24, 26 & 28, 16 Balmoral Road, Singapore 259802
25 January 2018 - 28 January 2018 l 12pm - 9pm
The 10th Anniversary of the homegrown Art Apart Fair, founded by Rosalind Lim, sees the exhibition of collectible and decorative art spanning over two locations over four days.
The main art exhibition is housed uniquely in four newly-built strata bungalows on Balmoral Road. The works are installed over five levels of living space in the Goodwood Grand bungalows — including the spacious living room, double volume dining room, and gourmet kitchen that links to an outdoor terrace and swimming pool.
In celebrating its 10th edition, Art Apart Fair features not just artworks by visual artists but also designers and artisans. Artisans from Guangzhou were flown in specially to create wall sculptures which feature in each the bungalows. The commissioned designs use 250kg of glass mosaic.
An architectural lighting designer and interior designer have transforms the new bungalows into a unified art enclaves — to show the possibilities of venue transformation when designers work in collaboration with artists.
Each of the four bungalows has a unique theme curated by AAF art director Rosalind Lim.
Art After Dark @ Gillman Barracks, Block 9 Lock Road, Singapore 108937
26 January 2018, Friday l 7pm till late l Free admission
Gillman Barracks’ flagship edition of the night time open house event, Art After Dark, returns this 26 January 2018! Look forward to an evening of stimulating contemporary art, live music, and F&B pop-ups with the showcase of new exhibitions and exciting programmes as galleries, the NTU Centre for Contemporary Art Singapore and the rest of the precinct open their doors from 7pm till late in Singapore’s very own visual arts cluster.
This edition’s highlights include DISINI, the inaugural visual arts festival happening in Gillman Barracks, Transaction of Hollows, a performance by artist Melati Suryodarmo, and the exhibition, SEA STATE 9: Proclamation, featuring new works from Charles Lim’s acclaimed SEA STATE project.
DISINI by Gillman Barracks & Chan + Hari @ Gillman Barracks, Block 9 Lock Road, Singapore 108937
26 January 2018 - 30 September 2018 l Free admission
DISINI is a curated festival consisting of a series of events, art exhibitions and public engagements. Spurred by its locale, DISINI borrows its name from the Malay adverb ‘di sini’, meaning ‘over here’.
The Gillman area has been occupied in as far back as 1349 as noted by Wang Dayuan, a Chinese trader who penned personal encounters with communities living near Longyamen, between Sentosa island and Labrador Point. Today, this historical landscape includes iconic sites such as Haw Par Villa, Pasir Panjang Terminal, the shrine of Raden Mas Ayu, Bukit Chandu and Labrador Park. These landmarks sit within a 4-km radius surrounding Gillman Barracks and string the curatorial premise for DISINI. Catchwords such as ‘divinity’, ‘trade’, ‘war’, ‘myth’, ‘monument’, ‘sanctuary’, ‘flora’, ‘occupation’ and ‘hero’, present ideas that call out to be excavated and engaged.
Through DISINI, the site presents possibilities for meaningful meetings and a juncture to consolidate the collective spirit.
Art Stage @ Sands Expo and Convention Centre
26 January 2018 - 28 January 2018 l Ticket priced at S$32 for one day pass, S$52 for 3 day pass.
ART STAGE Singapore returns in 2018 for its eighth edition from 26 to 28 January 2018. As the flagship show of the Southeast Asian art world, ART STAGE continues to develop and bridge regional art scenes to create a stronger and more unified Southeast Asian market. Positioned as the region’s key player in representing the interests of Asian art in the global arena, the Fair also acts as a catalyst for driving international interest in and understanding of Southeast Asian art and igniting heightened market activity. In long-standing recognition of Asia’s dynamism and artistic excellence, ART STAGE continues to innovate with special projects and showcases and encourage dialogue between markets. For more information, please visit www.artstage.com.
Front Lawn Movie Screening @ Singapore Art Museum, 71 Bras Basah Road, Singapore 189555
27 January 2018, Saturday l 7.30pm - 12.30am
Sit back and relax at the Singapore Art Museum as we bring back the old-school with an outdoor movie screening! Taking place at the SAM front lawn, enjoy an eclectic movie showcase and an accompanying selection of delectable snacks. Bring along your picnic mats, and enjoy a star-lit evening with friends and family.
The outdoor movie screening is an all-weather event.
Art Market at SAM @ Singapore Art Museum, 71 Bras Basah Road, Singapore 189555
28 January 2018, Sunday l 11am - 7pm
No one loves a good sale more than we do! Join the party at Singapore Art Museum as an art market takes over our museum courtyards! Don’t miss the opportunity to try the latest trending dishes, and get your hands on artisanal crafts and products created by a specially-curated selection of local designers, start-ups and food entrepreneurs.
What better way to wrap up the Singapore Art Week weekend than shopping and eating your heart out at SAM!
Building the Photo Ark with Joel Sartore @ Grand Theatre, Mastercard Theatres at Marina Bay Sands
27 January 2018 l Ticket prices starts from S$35
National Geographic photographer Joel Sartore is on a mission to capture portraits of the world's species before they disappear. With ingenuity, wit, and a serious midwestern work ethic, Sartore has created the National Geographic Photo Ark, the largest archive of its kind with over 6,000 images and counting. Hear about his comical mishaps, endearing encounters, and personal stories while documenting a world worth saving.
Music
HARRY POTTER and the Chamber of Secrets in CONCERT @ Esplanade Theatre
19 January 2018 - 20 January 2018 l Ticket prices starts from S$105
Audiences will experience the second chapter of the Harry Potter Film Concert Series with the Metropolitan Festival Orchestra performing music from the entire film live to picture
The Harry Potter Film Concert Series returns to the iconic Esplanade Theatre with Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets in Concert, the second film in the Harry Potter series. Following the success of the Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone in Concert, the Metropolitan Festival Orchestra will perform Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets in Concert on January, 19-20, 2018. Audiences will be able to relive the magic of the entire film in high-definition on a 40-foot screen while hearing the Metropolitan Festival Orchestra perform John Williams’ unforgettable score live.
ONE OK ROCK AMBITIONS ASIA TOUR 2018 @ Singapore Indoor Stadium
20 January 2018 l Ticket prices starts from S$98
Japanese rock band ONE OK ROCK is set to return to Singapore on 20 Jan 2018! Singapore, the second stop for the ONE OK ROCK AMBITIONS ASIA TOUR 2018, will also see ONE OK ROCK playing for the first time ever at Singapore Indoor Stadium, their biggest show so far in Singapore!
Formed in 2005, ONE OK ROCK consists of TAKA, TORU, RYOTA and TOMOYA. They are widely known for their frenetic live performances and fusing music styles like emo and rock. Since their debut in 2007, they have toured throughout Japan and appeared at many music festivals.
Earlier this year, ONE OK ROCK returned with their widely acclaimed Fueled By Ramen debut, “AMBITIONS.” The album, which features “We Are,” “Taking Off,” “Bedroom Warfare,” and “I Was King,” arrived atop the “Global Album Chart” with 315,000 equivalent sales making it the best-selling album on the planet in its first week. “AMBITIONS” is available now at all DSPs as well as via the official Fueled By Ramen store.
WILD KARD Tour in Singapore @ Zepp @ Big Box Singapore
21 January 2018 l Ticket prices starts at S$88
Topping charts and touring internationally before their official debut, co-ed group KARD is one of the most popular rookie groups of 2017. The talented group finally made their debut this past July and have already proven their global popularity by touring North America, South America, and Europe. 2018 WILD KARD TOUR IN SINGAPORE will be jam-packed with powerful performances from their latest album, interactive games, and a Q&A session, allowing KARD to get up close and personal with their fans in a much more intimate setting. KARD fans created a viral movement via MyMusicTaste, an online service that brings together music fans to request their favorite artist’s concert, and were instrumental in making this show happen. As a special thank you to all those who made the show happen on MyMusicTaste, those who requested KARD in Singapore will have access to presale plus a 10% discount off two tickets!
PLANETSHAKER LEGACY TOUR SINGAPORE @ Suntec Singapore Convention and Exhibition Centre
21 January 2018 l Tickets prices starts from S$48
The highly anticipated PLANETSHAKERS LEGACY TOUR follows the release of their albums LEGACY - Part 1: ALIVE AGAIN and LEGACY – Part 2: PASSIONreleased in March and July 2017 respectively, recorded live as part of the 20th anniversary celebration conference.
The Planetshakers band continuously forge new frontiers, push the boundaries of what modern worship sounds and looks like, and have found a unique voice for conveying praise and love to God. Building on a legacy of innovation, their approach has resonated with a global audience, packing out arenas around the world.
Over 20 albums later and millions of people at live events across the world, Planetshakers are sold out more so than ever before; to empower a generation to win a generation, for the mission.
Clean Bandit Live in Singapore @ Suntec Singapore Convention and Exhibition Centre
22 January 2018 l Ticket prices starts from S$168
Aureus Productions is proud to present Grammy Award-winning musical sensation "Clean Bandit Live in Singapore" concert on 22 Jan 2018, 8pm, at the Suntec City Convention & Exhibition Centre Halls 601 - 604! The one-night-only concert in Singapore marks the start of the trios' "I Miss You Tour 2018", and the second instalment of the "Aureus Great Artist Series" by Aureus Productions, an initiative aimed at bringing world-class acts to Singapore to inspire locals with a passion for music and to expose them to performances on an international level. Aureus Productions is pleased to announce popular local band The Sam Willows as the concert’s official Opening Act.
Super Junior Super Show 7 @ Singapore Indoor Stadium
27 January 2018 l Ticket prices starts from S$168
The KPOP LEGEND SUPER JUNIOR is finally back after 2 years with their 7th world tour "SUPER SHOW 7"! They will be performing at the Singapore Indoor Stadium on 27th Jan 2018. SUPER JUNIOR have recently made their long-awaited comeback with their 8th Album "Play". And they will also be embarking on their new World Tour "SUPER SHOW 7" which kicks off in Seoul on 15th – 17th Dec. After all tickets for the 16th and 17th show were sold out within 9 minutes of launch SUPER JUNIOR added another show on 15th for the explosive demand. Their latest album "PLAY" made it to top position on iTunes worldwide album charts in countries like Argentina, Chile, Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Singapore. Their title song 'Black Suit' also tops the Korea Music Chart – Soribada as well as KKBOX chart in Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong. They were also awarded 'Legend Award' on the 2017 Asia Artist Awards for their significant achievements over the years.
Laneway Festival @ The Meadow, Gardens By The Bay
27 January 2018 l Ticket prices starts from S$158
For the 8th year, Laneway Festival is back. With a stellar lineup of Anderson .Paak & The Free National, Billie Eilish, Father John Misty, Aldous Harding, Amy Shark, Bonobo, Mac Demarco, Loyle Carner, Heals, Slowdive, Rolling Blackouts Coastal Fever, Moses Sumney, Sylvian Esso, The Internet, The Ransom Collective, Wolf Alice, The War On Drugs, Alectbh and our local artists, Thelioncityboy, Tim De Cotta, Obedient Wives Club, MAS1A, Amateur Takes Control.
Distro Day Out @ The Substation Gallery
27 January 2018 l Free entry
For those who are interested in rock, punk, thrash and more.
Foster the People Live in Singapore @ Zepp @ Big Box Singapore
30 January 2018 l Ticket prices starts from S$138
LAMC Productions is thrilled to announce that iconic pop frontrunners, Foster The People will perform in Singapore on Tuesday, 30 January, 2018 at Zepp @ BigBox Singapore! Foster The People burst onto the indie scene with their massively popular and infectiously catchy single 'Pumped Up Kicks', which led them to take home a Billboard Music Award for Top Rock Song as well as Grammy, BRIT, NME and Teen Choice Award nominations. The band was founded by Mark Foster in Los Angeles in 2009. The group achieved success with the 2011 release of their debut album Torches, which has sold nearly two million albums and over ten million singles worldwide. Torches features the #1 hit single "Pumped Up Kicks", which was declared "the year's anthem" by SPIN, and also spawned the chart topping singles "Don't Stop (Color On The Walls)", "Houdini", and "Helena Beat". Foster the People garnered three Grammy nominations for their monumental debut, including Best Alternative Album, Best Pop Duo/Group Performance for "Pumped Up Kicks" and Best Short Form Music Video for "Houdini".
Theatre
Flying Through Time @ Resort World Theatre, Resort World Sentosa
9 December 2017 - 21 January 2018 l Ticket prices starts at S$38
What happens when a mythical relic with infinite power gets stolen by the villainous Dark X? Join Tiger, guardian of the Great Magic Rod, as he portals through time from ancient Korea to modern Singapore in pursuit of Dark X, only to find himself in the company of the MerTiger Academy cheerleading team. Will he succeed, or will this be the end of humanity as we know it? Transcend time, space and culture as world renowned Director Choi Chul Ki returns with an all-new non-verbal action comedy, one that tells a universal tale of good versus evil, and a love that conquers all - without words!
Munah and Hirzi Live:Curtain Call @ Capitol Theatre
24 January 2018 l Ticket prices starts from S$65
How do you say goodbye to 10 years? For ONE NIGHT ONLY, pioneer prince and princess of the local YouTube scene, Munah Bagharib and Hirzi Zulkiflie or also known as MunahHirziOfficial (MHO), are bringing a night of hilarity (and heartbreak) as they celebrate the end of an era; their final curtain call; the closing of their YouTube Channel. From the humble beginning of putting out guerilla-styled videos, attempting dares to well-produced music parodies, the dynamic duo has been making millions laugh-out-loud since 2007. With more than 142, 000 loyal subscribers on the MHO YouTube Channel and a resounding 32 million views on their channel, be prepared for the most epic send off the decade.
Conventions
World Snack Fair @ Suntec Singapore Convention and Exhibition Centre
19 January 2018 - 21 January 2018
The largest snack fair in the world is back! Bringing snack-lovers products from hundred of brands all over the world, participants can look forward to comestibles showcased in various zones, such as Japan, Korea, Europe and Australia.
World Baby Fair Singapore @ Singapore Expo Hall 4
19 January 2018 - 21 January 2018 l Free admission
The Baby Fair 2018 every parent is waiting for! This MEGA baby event brings together the BEST and BIGGEST names in the maternity, baby and family industry. With 150,000s of products from over 1000s of leading and boutique baby brands, this MEGA Baby Show gives a huge range of choice to new and expectant families. Find all your essentials - prams, buggies, travel systems, car seats and nursery furniture as well as lots of stylish, handy and innovative products from adorable clothing to feeding accessories. There is no better place to try products, compare brands and get demonstrations from experts so you can make informed buying decisions. Brands include Medela, Philips Avent, NUK, Mustela, BabySafe, Micuna, Bright Starts, Ingenuity, Recaro, Cosatto, Joovy, Babyhome, Tommee Tippee, VTech, Graco, Fedora, Aprica, Britax, Joie, Maclaren, Quinny, Safety1st, FisherPrice, Combi, Chicco, 4MOMS and More. Enjoy Massive Savings on the best deals at unbeatable prices with exclusive show offers on lots of baby essentials and save time by getting everything all in one trip!
Edits will be done at night when there are new events to be updated or once the event is over.
Past events,
Hwa Chong International School
6 January 2018 l 9am - 12pm
Anglo-Chinese Junior College
10 January 2018 l 12pm - 5pm
Anderson Junior College/ Serangoon Junior College
13 January 2018 l 3.30pm to 8.30pm
Catholic Junior College
13 January 2018 l 10am- 4pm
Eunoia Junior College
13 January 2018 l 9am - 4pm
Hwa Chong Institution
15 January 2018 l 12pm - 4pm
Millennia Institute
13 January 2018 l 10am - 3pm
Nanyang Junior College
13 January 2018 l 8am - 3.30pm
National Junior College
13 January 2018 l 9am - 3pm
Pioneer Junior College/Jurong Junior College
13 January 2018 l 9am - 5pm
Saint Andrew’s Junior College
13 January 2018 l 9am - 4pm
Temasek Junior College
13 January 2018 l 11am - 4pm
Victoria Junior College
13 January 2018 l 8.30am - 4pm
Yishun Junior College/ Innova Junior College
13 January 2018 l 11am - 5pm
Meridan Junior College/ Tampines Junior College
15 January 2018 l 10.30am - 4pm
Raffles Institution
15 January 2018 l 9am - 3.30pm
SIT Open House 2018 @ Suntec Singapore Convention & Exhibition Centre
13 January 2018 - 14 January 2018 l Free Admission
NAFA Open House
12 January 2018 - 14 January 2018 l 10am - 5pm
Singapore Polytechnic Open House @ SP
4 January 2018 - 6 January 2018 l Free Admission
Nanyang Polytechnic Open House @ NYP
4 January 2018 - 6 January 2018 l Free Admission
Republic Polytechnic Open House @ RP
4 January 2018 - 6 January 2018 l Free Admission
Ngee Ann Polytechnic Open House @ NP
4 January 2018 - 6 January 2018 l Free Admission
Temasek Polytechnic Open House @ TP
4 January 2018 - 6 January 2018 l Free Admission
Conventions
Singapore Motorshow 2018 @ Suntec Convention Centre
11 January 2018 - 14 January 2018 l Ticket prices starts from S$6
Presented by the Motor Traders Association (MTA) of Singapore in partnership with MediaCorp, the Singapore Motorshow is Singapore's most celebrated and prestigious event for motoring enthusiasts. The Singapore Motorshow 2018 will feature more than 20 automobile brands and providers of automotive accessories, and lifestyle products and services across two floors of exhibition space at Suntec Singapore. Back by popular demand, professional precision and stunt driver Russ Swift will thrill visitors with amazing displays of precision driving. From Mediacorp celebrity appearances to fantastic lucky draw prizes, Singapore Motorshow 2018 promises to offer an exciting experience for everyone.
Music
PG.Lost - Versus tour with In Each Hand A Cutlass @ Annexe Studio at The Esplanade
5 January 2018 l Tickets from S$65
PG.Lost are an instrumental four-piece from Sweden. Their multifaceted approach to post-rock touches on the industrial, experimental and electronic, however they are far more than the sum of their parts. Their sound is throbbing with great melancholy, but there is also an element of dirty rock n' roll thrown in, and can careen from being crushingly heavy to delicately fragile. Their latest album Versus (2016) on Pelagic Records is their fourth full-length after Key (2012), In Never Out (2009), and It's Not Me, It's You! (2008). The band has toured extensively in Europe and China, and 2018 takes them to Southeast Asia for the first time. It'll be a night that fans of instrumental post-rock will be sure to revel in and remember.
Amateur Takes Control - ATC EP2 Release Show @ Annexe Studio at The Esplanade
6 January 2018 l Tickets at S$15
Officially back after a three-year hiatus, Amateur Takes Control (ATC) returns with their second EP, aptly named ATC EP2 released via KittyWu Records. Recorded at Snakeweed Studios between April and June 2017, the EP features four new tracks, written with two new members – guitarist Field Teo and drummer Martin Kong. Engineered and mixed by Kong and mastered by James Plotkin (Isis, Sunn O))), MONO, Pelican, Thou), the tracks highlight the band’s noisier, darker, more aggressive side.
Breakbot in Singapore @ OverEasy Orchard
6 January 2018 l Tickets at S$35
Get ready to kick off 2018 with electro wunderkind Breakbot. The inimitable French producer and DJ returns to our shores for a one night exclusive, bringing a mixture of playful nu-disco, feel-good house and infectious electropop soundscapes. Mastermind behind iconic crowd favourites such as “Baby I’m Yours”, “Fantasy” and “One Out Of Two”, Breakbot promises a slew of mesmerizing hits guaranteed to get you breaking out your dance moves.
“The Invincible 2” Jay Chou @ Singapore National Stadium
6 January 2018 l Limited tickets available at S$278++
Asia’s reigning King of Mandopop, “The Invincible” Jay Chou’s Concert Tour was a sell out in every leg of the tour including 4 nights of his concert in Taipei. We are pleased to announce Part 2 of “The INVINCIBLE” JAY CHOU CONCERT TOUR with Singapore as the first leg of its tour! Together with his strong team of talented musicians and dancers, the concert will showcase many of Jay Chou’s classic and new hits which will have his fans singing along.
Imagine Dragons Evolve World Tour @ Singapore Indoor Stadium
7 January 2018 l Ticket prices starts from S$98
Since making their full-length debut with 2012’s multi-platinum Night Visions, Imagine Dragons have drawn worldwide adoration for their anthemic yet moody alt-rock. On their third album Evolve, the Grammy Award-winning band shift perspective and take on a brighter but more layered emotional outlook.
Throughout Evolve, Imagine Dragons find unlikely glory in intense self-reflection. On “Whatever It Takes,” the band turns self-doubt into a soaring, shimmering epic driven by heavy beats and Reynolds’s rapid-fire flow. Another moment of reckoning, “Thunder” brings waves of majestic harmonies and warped vocal effects to Reynolds’s recounting of his life’s journey so far.
Formed in 2009, Imagine Dragons first revealed their emotionally charged and inventive sensibilities with a series of independently released EPs that earned them a grassroots following. Signed to KIDinaKORNEInterscope by hit making producer Alex Da Kid, the band greatly expanded their fan base with the release of their multi-platinum breakthrough single “It’s Time” (featured on the 2012 EP Continued Silence). With their past hits also including “Radioactive” (a diamond-selling smash that won Best Rock Performance at the 2014 Grammy Awards), Imagine Dragons went on to see Smoke + Mirrors debut at #1 on the Billboard Top 200 album chart upon its release in early 2015.
FLEET FOXES LIVE IN SINGAPORE @ The Esplanade Theatre
14 January 2018 l Tickets starts from s$88
Don’t miss indie folk luminaries Fleet Foxes as they bring their spellbinding blend of lush instrumentation and sweeping harmonies live in Singapore for the very first time at the Esplanade Theatre!
Formed in Seattle, Washington, Fleet Foxes is made up of Robin Pecknold, Skyler Skjelset, Casey Wescott, Christian Wargo and Morgan Henderson. In 2008, Fleet Foxes’ self-titled debut made a profound impact on the international musical landscape, earning them Uncut magazine’s first ever Music Award Prize and making numerous ‘Best Of’ lists, including Rolling Stone’s 100 Best Albums of the 2000’s and Pitchfork’s 50 Best Albums of 2008. The follow-up album ‘Helplessness Blues’ (2011) was met with the same critical praise as its predecessor, debuting at No. 4 on the Billboard Top 200 and earning the band a GRAMMY nomination for Best Folk Album. This year, Fleet Foxes returned with their third studio album ‘Crack-Up’ to the delight of fans worldwide. In the words of Q magazine, “(Crack-Up is) a rich, ideas-driven record which pulls off a pretty unlikely feat: infusing Fleet Foxes’ music with the same sense of transcendence and beauty that they managed the first time, now delivered with an added sense of expansive musical ambition. Confirms that rarest of achievements: a group somehow hanging on to the essence of who they are, while pushing their art into thrillingly unforeseen places.”
Carnival
Transformers Run x Carnival @ Sentosa Island
6 January 2018 l Ticket prices starts from S$85
Calling all sports enthusiasts, families and Transformer fans in Singapore! This is a 5km fun run happening on 06 January 2018 at the Sentosa Island, Palawan Green. Soak in the fun at the carnival packs with booths and game activities like the NERF Arena, inflatables, Transformer merchandises, F&Bs and Transformers’ showcases. Carnival opens from 12pm – 8pm with the run kicking off at 4pm.
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